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Hakim Abu'l Qasim Ferdowsi Tousi about (940-1018) was a great Persian poet and the author of "Shahnameh" (the national epic of Persian-speakers anf of the Iranian World) Shah means king but when it is used as a prefix it means great or major.
There are many stories about Ferdowsi's life which has some main reasons:####
Firstly, Ferdowsi was not loved by the kings of his own time, because he was shi'ite, therefore it has not been written that much about him, in the first centuries after his death.
Secondly,people loved Ferdowsi's poems and they have always been curious about his life, therefore the reciters of Shahnaameh( those who read Shahnaame for people) had to make different stories about his life.
According to the contemporary researchers's view, Ferdowsi was born in 940 in a village called"Paaj" near Tous in Khorasan.
Childhood and education
Ferdowsi's father was a peasant, this word at that time meant: An Iranian person who was the owner of village.
Therefore it can be concluded that Ferdowsi had almost an easy life and his family did not have financial problems, so he could have had suitable education. It can be inferred from"Shahnaameh" that he knew Arabic and Pahlavi, also it seems that he was familiar with Greek philosophy.
Youth and poetical art
He lived in the reign of Samanides( one of the Iranian dynasties) when he was in his childhood and youth. He was one of the main supporters of Persian literature. Ferdowsi wrote "Shahnaameh" according to "Shahnaameh Abu Mansouri"(Abu Mansur is not the name of the writer of Shahnaameh, he ordered people to write this book, that is why it is called AbuMansouri). Some of the stories of Shahnaameh have been written in Ferdowsi's youth, such as: Rostam and Sohrab, Rostam and Esfandiar, Siavash, Akvan Div(Akvan is the name of a demon).
Writing of Shahnaameh
"Shahnaameh" is the most important works of Ferdowsi and also one of the greatest works of ancinet Prsian literature. Ferdowsi finished "Shahnaameh" in 993.
There are different ideas about the exact time of his death, some researchers believe that he died in 1024 but some others say that he died in 1919 or even before that. Because of some disagreements his corpse was not allowed to be burried in Muslims'cemetery, therefore he was buried in his own garden or in his daughter's.
The only work which is belonged to Ferdowsi is "Shahnaameh". There are some othe works which are attributed to Ferdowsi such as a (Masnavi) heroic couplet called "Joseph and Zolykha", but it has been rejected by many researchers.
The opponents and supporters
In the first years after Ferdowsi's death, there were a lot of disagreements about "Shahnaameh". The opponents believed that Ferdowsi has flattered the kings of his own time in his poems but there were some others who believed the opposite.
Researches on Ferdowsi
The first correction of "Shahnaameh" was made in Calcutta. The first time it was published incompletely in 1811 and the second time completely in 1829.
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