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Abu Hamed Imam Muhammad Ghazali Toosi, outstanding Muslim philosopher, jurisconsult, mystic and theologian. He was born in 1059 in Toos –Iran. After learning primary sciences, he travelled to Gorgan –Iran to continue his edeucation. At the age of 23 travelled to Neishabour and studied under "Imam al- Haramain Joweini". Then at the age of 34 he was so expert that he could teach at "Nezamiyeh university" in Baghdad. 300 scholars attended his classes. He had also political activities. ####
Actually, Ghazali was not a philosopher and was against philosophy and philosophers especially "Avicenna". He did not study philosophy under masters but studied philosophy for 3 years and then wrote the books: "Purposes of philosophers" and "self-contradiction of philosophers" which are the important Islamic books. There have been many in the Islamic world who were opposed to philosophy but no one has been as strict as Ghazali. If there were not the great philosophers "Suhrawardi" and "Khajeh Nasi Toosi", Ghazali would abolish philosophy. We call him a philosopher because his negative and positive ideas had noticeable effects on philosophy. "Muhammad Shahrestani" (theologian), "Abu Hatam Muzaffar" (mathematician), "Meimun Ibn Najib Waseti" (mathematician) are in the same category as Ghazali. After acquainting with different sects, he quited teaching and became a Sufi. In 1094, he wrote his most famous book "Revival of the religious sciences".

Other works:
1- The alchemy of prosperity
2- Criterion of science
3- Advice of kings
4- Yaqut al –Ta;wil fi tafsir al –Tanzil (on exegesis of the Quran)

Ghazali died in 1111.



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