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Abu Ali Muhammad Ibn Joneyd Iskafi, was born in Iraq into a religious and educated family. He was the master of "sheikh Mufid" (great jurisconsult). Ibn Joneyd and "Ibn Abi Aqil" are called "the two early jurisconsults". Ibn Joneyd's ideas on jurisprudence are always considered. He was contemporary with "Ibn Babwayh" and "sheikh Sadouq". From death of the Holy Proohet up to 912, Shias had an unpleasant and dangerous situation; they were always in minority. "Abbasides" and "Ommaides" caliphs never let the Imams have relationship with Shias, the #### countries: Africa, Spain, Egypt, Rome and China all were under their rule, Shias were under pressure and were not allowed to express their beliefs, but in the middle of the 10th century, Shias had a better situation , because of the powerful Shia dynasty in Egypt called "Fatimite". In Syria also "Hamdanides" ruled, they respected Shias. Other Shia dynasties: "Saffarid", "Tahirid" and "Alawides" also ruled in east, south-eastern and north of Iran. The most important dynasty which was extended to Syria and Egypt, was "Buyides". They loved Shias and had a high respect for them. These factors caused Shias to propagate their beliefs and establish religious schools.
Ibn Joneyd communicated with Sunni scolars; also "Koleini" and "Sadouq" (great traditionists) travelled to Baghdad which was the base of Sunnis. Seyyed Sadr (jurisconsult) said about him: "Ibn Joneyd is one of the great jurisconsults, he wrote different books on jurisprudence and made great effort to arrange jurisprudence".
He wrote around 50 books which most of themare on
jurisprudence, methodology, theology and literature; the following are somer of them:
1- The commandments of blood-money
2- prayer commandments
3- cmmandments of divorce
4- Demanding (Estifa)
5- 1000 questions on "theology" (Kalam)
6- Examples of the Quran
7- Tahrir and Taqrir (writing and speaking out)
8- 2000 questions
9- Making understandand the principles of Islamic commandments
10- The holy gardens (Hadaeq al –Qods)
11- Tahzib al –Shia le Ahkam al –Shariah ,etc.
Ibn Joneyd died in 913.
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