Abu Reyhan Biruni

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Abu Reyhan Biruni, one of the most original and profound scholars of medieval Islam (973 – 1050), of Iranian origin. He was equally versed in the mathematical, astronomic, physical and natural sciences and also distinguished himself as a geographer and historian, chronologist and chronologist and linguist and as an impartial observer of customs and creeds. Abu Reyhan translated philosophical Indian works into Arabic. He exactly calculated the revolution of the Sun and the axial revolution of the Earth. He also observed and studied the eclipse of #### Luqman mountains (in Afghanistan) on the 8th April 1019 and also the lunar eclipse on September in Ghazna. In many countries, he is known as “The eternal master”. Abu Reyhan was proficient in Arabic, Indian and Greek languages. He lived in the reign of some important dynasties: Sffarids (dynasty which reigned in Sistan from 867 till 1495), Samanids, Ziyarids and Buyids (Shia dynasty of Daylam origin). Biruni was also contemporary with Avicenna (celebrated Iranian scholar).

He wrote over 146 books and treatises on different fields, in Arabic:
1- al-Tafhim “Making understand” (on mathematics and astronomy)
2- The left monuments (on geography and history)
3- Qanun –e Mas’oudi (encyclopedia)
4- Indiaology (on history, geography, custom, culture and social classes of India)
Abu Reyhan registered the encyclopedia in the name of Mas’oud (the sultan of Ghaznawid dynasty). Ghaznawid was Sunni Turkish dynasty which ruled in Khurasan, Afghanistan and northern India with its centre at Lahore from 977 to 1186.



Islamic encyclopedia


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