The Expression on exegesis of the Koran (al-Bayan)

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This book is one of the valuable works of contemporary shi’a jurisconsult ,“Ayatullah Seyyid Abulqasim khoie” ,that has been translated into Arabic. An important book, in commentary and Quranic science. This book consists of some Quranic sciences topics, such as: Miracle, Distortion (Tahrif) and also commentary of “The opening” (Al- Fatiha) sura. Despite author’s aim and purpose about writing other commentary of Quranic suras, “Al-Bayan” only consisting of “The opening” (Al- Fatiha) sura. Infact these compilation, are result of Ayatollah Khoie’s ####instructing at theological school of Najaf (Refer to Khoie’s “Mo’jam Rejaal Al-Hadith” volume 22, page 19). The author of “Al-Bayan”, in preliminary subjects and also in commentary of “The opening” (Al-Fatiha) sura, clearly has been inspired by “Kalami”(theological) subjects of his master “Allameh Balaghi” in “Aalaelrahman” book. The impact of this book is obvious in the field of Quranic sciences, specially in the non-distorted subjects of Holy Quran. In so far as, some works are counted as compendious or comprehensive explanation. Also attention of Sunni scholars and Quran researcher is another sign of presence range of this work.

The author

Ayatollah Seyyed Abul Qasem Khoie, one of the most influential Islamic scholars, was born in 1899 in Khoi –Iran. He was the spiritual leader of much of the Shi' world until his death.

At the age of 13, he took up residence in Najaf –Iraq and began studying Shi'a theology under the scholars.
Due to his prominent position as a teacher and scholar, he became an important leader of worldwide Shias.
He is considered as the architect of a distinct school of thought in the principles of jurisprudence and Islamic law and one of the leading exponents of scholastic theology, study of the biographies of transmitters of Hadiths, jurisprudence and exegesis of the Quran.
Khoie wrote 37 books and treatises on various topics, ranging from Islamic jurisprudence to mathematics and astronomy:
Lectures in the principles of jurisprudence (10 volumes)-
Biographies of narrators of tradition (24 volumes)-
Islamic laws (18 volumes) -
- The elucidation of the exegesis of the Quran
- The path of the righteous
- Anthology of religious questions
- Edifices of deducation (Principles of jurisprudence), etc.

He passed away in 1992.

General Content and Book Structuring
In introduction, the author briefly wrote about his style of commentary, then in the first chapter with the title of “Fazle Quran”(Quran superiority) revealed the quran position in the light of verses, and had emphasized the necessity of thinking about it. In chapter two, in the subject of “Quran Miracle”(ejaze quran) wrote about literal clarification of miracle, its terminological meanings and its difference with magic. He says: “top miracle” is the miracle that could challenge with the top world events, therefore by clarifying the eloquence and elocution position in pre-islamic period, began to prove the superiority of the Quran in periods and matchless of quran in explanation and telling the lofty facts.
The subject of recitation(qaraat) that has old background and special importance, has been described in detail in “Albayan”. The author hints to the position of recitation with the viewpoints of quran researchers and with specifying to the non-sequence of seven kinds of recitings (qaraathaye haftganeh) says: the non-sequence of recitings, is common word between shia and it isn’t unusual to be so between the public (page: 123). For proving the non-sequence of recitings, the author at first introduce the “Ten Reciters” (qaariyane dahganeh) and then explained the quality of their recitings report. Since the author negated the sequence of recitings, in the following of this subject, disconnected the connection of seven kinds of recitings with tradition(hadith) of “Ahrof Sabeh” (seven kinds of recitings hadith) and has emphasized that this tradition with having any meaning, has not any connection with the subject of seven kinds of recitings. For emphasing his viewpoint, he has related the viewpoints of some famous Sunni commentators and quran researchers.
The author after evaluation the “recitings validity”(hojiyat qaraatha), with reference to “kafi” tradition, emphasizes that in “prayer” (namaz), that reciting is a correct reciting, which is prevalent among imams (p,b.u.t) times (page:167 ). In quranic sciences, talking about “Ahraf Sabeh” is very extensive. The author has introduced different kinds of traditions and after evaluating all of them, has asserted that because of contradiction of traditions and impossibility of justification, they couldn’t be accepted (page: 171 to 193). Therefore, he completely rejected the “Ahrof Sabeh” (seven kinds of recitings) traditions. The main subject of “Albayan” is about the non-distortion of quran. The author has defined the meaning of distortion, showed its kinds and dimentions and in this way has clarified the site of subject dispute. He also asserted that researchers have not believed the distortion, and (he) has considered the “Naskhul Talave” as a kind of distortion. [“naskhul talave” means: In the time of Mohammad Prophet (p.b.u.h) something of Quran had been read, then by order of Allah the reading of it had been abolished]. For proving the non-distortin of Quran, he has refered to quran verses, tradition, traditions of suras and quran virtues (pages: 207 to 235). His explanation about Imam Ali’s quran (p.b.u.h) and (his) evaluation of content and document of traditions, is noticeable. The main reasons of distortion believers are about the collecting of quran. They believe that because the quran hadn’t been collected in the time of Prophet Mohammad (p.b.u.h), then during collecting in time of “the caliphs” (kholafa), it has been distorted. Thus, the author started the subject of quran collecting and after evaluating and studying the traditions and also analyzing the subject dimentions and its different suppositions, has concluded that, the present Quran, is the quran that had been collected at the time of Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h).
The author after proving the faultlessness, reliability and revelational aspect (wahyani) of quran, talks about the validity of the quran’s literal meanings (hojiyat zavahere quran) and for proving it, refers to the rational, quranic and traditional reasons, then reports the individual’s reasons that believe to the invalidity of the quarn’s literal meanings (adame hojiyate quran). The author that in the previous part has evaluated the distortion reasons, in this part has evaluated the other reasons of them, and emphasizes on the validity of the quran’s literal meanings (pages: 263 to 273). In the subject of validity of the Quran’s literal meanings, that practically is the validity of all its verses, is posed the manner of abrogation(naskh) of quran verses. From here, the author discusses about the abrogation(naskh), and after the subject of abrogation(naskh) also talks about the Bada(revision) and has retold the viewpoints of shia about it(pages: 277-394). Subject of commentary principles is another subject of this book that the author in this part says: in commentary, relying on commentators viewpoints is unreliable, and emphasizes to trust on quran’s literal meanings with close attention to words meaning in arabic literature and thinking about it and considers especial position for correct traditions in verses explanation, and answers all problems about getting Khabare Vahed (unique news) in commentary and its validity (pages: 397 to 402). “Huduth(temporality) or qidam(eternity) of the Quran” that is old disputes of Mu tazilites (Motazela) and Ashaereh, is the final part of quranic sciences of this book. The author knows it, as a involving subject in Islamic culture and considers it as results of entring Greek philosophy subjects to the area of Islamic culture. In this part, he evaluates the viewpoint of Ashaereh and knows reliable the viewpoints of Mu tazilites (Motazela) and Shia in Huduth of Quran (pages: 405 to 413).
The final part of the book is commentary of “The opening” (Al- Fatiha) sura, that the author in the light of attention to the quran and tradition(hadith) and thinking to the word and Arabic literature, has translated verses. The literal subject of “Worship” word and the juridical subject of “In the name of Allah” (Besmellah) are the useful and helpful subjects of the book. The author’s juridical insight and basic accuracies are obvious in everywhere of his commentary. In appendix of this book, has been discussed about “Saqalain” hadith, Quran translation, force and will(jabr va ekhtiyar), intercession(shafaat), and etc (pages: 499 to 528). Albayan for the first time was published in “Najaf” in the year of 1956. Hashem Hashemzadeh Harisi and Mohamad Sadeq Najafi have translated it into Persian in the field of quranic sciences and general issues, with the title of “Bayan”. Also its complete translation in “Urdu” by translator “Mohamad Shafae Najafi” has been published in Islamabad in 1989(1410). Also two chapters of it, with the titles of “ quran collecting and compliation” and “quran safty from distortion” has been published in English by “Asqarali Jafar” in 1987. Also the chapter of “Validity of the Quran’s literal meanings” (hojiyate zavahere quran) by translator “Mojahed Hussein” has been published in “Altohid” magazine in 1989. Oxford university press, has published full English translation of Albayn written by “Abdolaziz Sashadina” in 1998.

Sources

The Foundation of Islamic Encyclopedia

wikipedia

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