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Suhrawardi’s ishraqi school marked a turning point in the history of Islamic philosophy since it changed the direction and nature of philosophical thinking from a purely rationalistic approach to one that considered ascetic practices to be part of its epistemological paradigm. Most of the school of philosophy that came after Suhrawardi were influenced by his teachings in one way or another. Some of them, such as the Shaykhiyyah movement, which agreed certain strands of ishraqi thought, opposed others.
The school of illumination was not only instrumental reconciling the two traditions of wisdom that has been in contrast with one another, Sufism and the Peripatetic philosophy but also brought about a harmony between them. The result was that purification and asceticism became a necessary condition for the philosophical speculation, which ultimately leads to be attainments of truth.
To following discussion will demonstrate how Suhrawardi’s ideas spread to different parts of the Islamic world and the different ways in which the ishraqi school played a role in the development of subsequent philosophical schools. The purpose is not to show specific links that exist between Suhrawardi his successors by way of textual analysis , but rather to show the influence of Suhrawardi on various schools of thought.
B. Persia and India as the cradle of the school of illumination
By virtue of their historical, cultural and intellectual backgrounds, it was greater Persia and the sub-continent of India that became the cradle of the school of the illumination, from which the influence of Suhrawardi’s ideas spread in the following geographical areas:
A. Greater Persia
B. sub-continent of India
C. Syria, Anatolia, Spain and North Africa
D. The West.
suhrawardi and illumination school
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