در این متـن میخوانـــیم :
It is the name of a Koranic exegesis narrated bu twoshiite narrators called “Abul Hasan Ali Yasar” Abu yaqub Yousof Ibn Ziyar”
The commentary is written by “Muhammad Ibn Qasem Astarabadi”. This koranic exegesis attributed to 11th Shia Imam, “Imam Has an Askari”, according to the two narrators of the exegesis, they were in the presence of the Imam for seven years in Samerra –Iraq and the Imam provided a Koranic commentary.
The book is composed in the 9th century.
The Imam's life
Hasan al-Askari (Eighth of Rabi' al-thani 232 AH – Eighth of Rabi' al-awwal 260 AH; approximately: 1 December 846 – 1 January 874) was the eleventh of the Twelve Imams. His given name was Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Muhammad.His title al-Askari derives from the Arabic word Asker which means military. He was given this title mainly because the country he lived in (Samarra) was a military camp. Hasan al-‘Askarī was 22, when his father was killed. The period of his Imāmate, following his father's death, was six years. Hasan Al-‘Askarī died at the age of 28 in the year, 260 Hijra and was buried in Samarra.
Hasan al-Askari's imamate met difficulty even before the death of his father. Many felt that Hasan al-Askari became the eleventh Imam by default due to the fact that his older brother had died and was considered the designated successor to his father during his lifetime. Some of those who refused to accept the imamate of al-Askari, had instead chosen to follow his younger brother hereafter refereed to as Ja'far (not to be confused with his deceased older brother). His right to succession was also challenged by this same brother.
Imam al-Askari represented the front of opposition to the Abbasid rule. He criticized the rulers for appropriating the wealth of the nation and extorting the people under their rule. He did so by not communicating with or cooperating with kings who took wealth unlawfully and used followers of Islam as slaves. Due to the domination of the Turks, al-Askari had little effect on the Political life during his time. The state remained in a political crisis, as the Abbasid Caliphs were considered puppets of the Turks who ruled with terrorism.
The religious life during the time of al-Askari's imamate was also in shambles as well. Due to the fact that al-Askari was under house arrest for a majority of his life, many non-believers took advantage of this time and tried to misguide the Muslims. He did continue to speak out against those who questioned the Qur'an. Historians claim that al-Askari had a disciple relay a powerful message to the philosopher in which he stated
"If someone recites the Qur'an, is it possible that he means other meanings than what you think you understand? If he says it is possible say to him How do you know? He might mean other than the meanings that you think, and so he fabricates other than the Qur'an's meanings".
The claim that follows is that the Philosopher burned his book in light of the belief that no one besides a member of the household could say something like this and that he must truly be the eleventh Imam from this lineage. In this way the Imam had some influence on the religious lives of his followers. He would address them through the visitors he was permitted to receive.
The book structure
The book includes two sections: the first part contains exegesis of the phrase “In the name of God The Mercy –giving, the Merciful”. And the whose of the sure “the Opening “(Hamd). As well as commentary of the sura “ caw” (Baqara) up to the verse 114 the second part includes exegesis of the sura ”cow” from the verse 159 up to the end of the verse 179.
This exegesis of book includes prophetic traditions on superiorities of the Koran as well as the virtues of the Holy Imams, the prophet’s life. Most of the commentaries of this exegesis book concern the miracles and virtues of prophets.
The following are the most important subjects mentioned in the book:
1- The miracles of prophets.
2- The virtues of His Holiness Ali (p. b .u. h)
3-The superiority of the Koran
4-seeking help from the Innocent ones
6- Superiority of the prophet’s companions over those of the early prophets.
There are many different views on accuracy of the exegesis if it is attributed to “Imam Hasan Askari” or not.
Some scholar fully believes that this Koranic exegesis is attributed to the Imam, while some other traditionists and scholars deny that this exegesis is attributed to Imam Hasan.
The following are the scholars who admit accuracy of the book although they believe that this exegesis book includes both right and wrong Hadiths.
1- Sheikh Sadouq
5-sheikh Hurr Aameli
7-sayyed Hashem Bahrani
8- Sheikh Ansari
9-Aqa Bazorg Tehrani
The opponents of the book:
1- Ibn Qazaer
2- Allameh Helli
3- Sheikh Javad Balaqi
4-Mirza Abul Hasan Sharani
Koranic exegesis attributed to His Holiness Imam Hasan Askari
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