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The book “Monotheism” (al-Tawhid) is one of the greatest Shiite theological works, written by the outstanding scholar sheik sadouq.
Abu Jafar Muhammad Babwayh Qomi, known as “Ibn Babwayh” and “Sheikh Saduq” and “Ibn Babwayh”, a celebrated Shia jurisconsult and great traditionist in the 10th century. He was born in 900.
After primary education, he studied jurisprudence and Hadith in the presence of great jurisconsults and traditionists of Qom such as: his father (Ali Ibn Babwayh Qomi), Muhammad Ibn Hossein Ibn Walid, Ahmad Ibn Ali Qomi, Hossein Ibn Idris Qomi and other great scholars.
Sheikh Saduq lived in the reign of the Shia dynasty “Buyids” which ruled the great part of the Islamic world, therefore Sheikh Saduq travelled a lot to visit Shia scholars in different places.
In 936, learnt Hadith from “Abul Hasan Muhammad Asadi” in Rey – Iran. In 941, he learnt Prophetic Hadiths from the great scholars of Neishabour: “Aqbu Ali Hossein Beyhaqi” and “Abdul Rahman Abdus”. Also in Marv from: “Abul Hasan Muhammad Faqih” and “Abu Yusuf Rafe”.
And in other cities: Kufa, Mecca, Baghdad, Balkh and Sarakhs learnt more Hadiths.
In 948, by request of the Buyid caliph “Rukn al-Dowleh Deylami”, Sheikh Saduq was resident in Rey and became the religious leader of Shias.
- Attributes of Shias
- Ma’ani al-Akhbar
- The city of science (Madinat al-Ilm)
- Moqanna’ (On jurisprudence)
- The reasons for religious laws
- Proving the guardianship of Imam Ali (the 1st Imam of Shias)
- Perfecting the religion (Islam) and completing blessing
Habits (Khesal) ,etc.
Great scholars such as: Sheikh Tusi, Ibn Idris Helli, Ibn Shahr Ashub, Allameh Helli, Najashi, Fakhr al-Muhaqeqin and Allameh Bahr al-Ulum all have praised Sheikh Saduq.
He died in 991. His tomb is a place of pilgrimage in Rey – Iran.
The book structure
The book is composed in 67 chapters including monotheism , uniqueness of the Essence of God the essential attributes of God ( the compassionate, the Merciful, the Relenting, the Forgiving….), the private the private attributes of God ( not having children , not being a child, there is no motion in His Essence , He has no body ,….)
the relation between these two attributes (private and essential) with Divine Essence, formation and precedence , fate and destiny, fatalism and free will.
The author also concerns the distinction between the attributes of God is Essence (the Alert, the observant, the Aware, the capable,) and those of His deeds (word, creation , determination,….)
Besides all these subjects, sheikh sadouq with the help of Hadiths explains also the koranic verses whose appearance prove attributes
for God , the attributes such as: eyes, nose, face,….as well as the attributes like: beside , Joking ,… some monotheism books have been written by Shiite and Sunni scholars, as follows:
1- Mofazzal Ibn Umar kufi (one of the companions of Imam sadeq )
2- Abu Muhammad Hesham kufi, great Shiite theologian
(the companion of Imam kazem and Imam Reza “the 7th and the 8th shia Imam)
3- Abu Ahmad Muhammad Azadi
4- Abu Muhammad Fazl Neishabouri
5- Sheikh Abu Hasan Babwayh Qami ( father of the great scholar “ sheikh sadouq”
6- Abu sahl Ismail Nobakhti
7- Abu Jafar Muhammad Abi khatab
Due to the theological aspect of the book , many annotations have been written on it, the following are some of the annotators.
1- Sayyed Muhammad khalil Hoseini kashani ( the student of the prominent scholar “ Mullah Mohsen Feyz kashani”)
2- Shah Muhammad Istahbanati shirazi
3- Mullah Muhammad Baqer sabzwari
4- Abu Nasr Muhammad Ayashi (great Shiite commentator)
5- Jalal al- Din Muhammad Rowani
6- Qazi saeed Qomi
7- Sayyed Nemat Allah Jazayeri
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