The Left Monuments

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This is one of the prominent books of Abu Reyhan Biruni; in Arabic. The main subject of the book is on chronology of the ancient nations, along with astronomical issues, the celebrations and festivals of different ethnic groups, the ceremonies of different religious sects, on the history of Babel, Chaldea, Egypt, Rome, Iran and Greece.

The author
Abu Reyhan Biruni, one of the most original and profound scholars of medieval Islam (973 – 1050), of Iranian origin. ####He was equally versed in the mathematical, astronomic, physical and natural sciences and also distinguished himself as a geographer and historian, chronologist and chronologist and linguist and as an impartial observer of customs and creeds.

Abu Reyhan translated philosophical Indian works into Arabic. He exactly calculated the revolution of the Sun and the axial revolution of the Earth. He also observed and studied the eclipse of Luqman mountains (in Afghanistan) on the 8th April 1019 and also the lunar eclipse on September in Ghazna. In many countries, he is known as “The eternal master”. Abu Reyhan was proficient in Arabic, Indian and Greek languages. He lived in the reign of some important dynasties: Sffarids (dynasty which reigned in Sistan from 867 till 1495), Samanids, Ziyarids and Buyids (Shia dynasty of Daylam origin). Biruni was also contemporary with Avicenna (celebrated Iranian scholar).

The chapters of the book
1- On the essence of day and night, according to the Arabs, Iranians and Romans.
2- On the essence of begin of month and year and different sorts of Kabise (having an extra day in the Persian month, Esfand; 30 days instead of 29)
3- On the essence of Anno Hrjirae (A.H) and Anno Domini (A.D)
4- Different ideas on the essence of “Zul Qarneyn” (name of a prophet)
5- On Persian and Hebrew months
6- On the festivals of the Magians before the advent of Zoroaster
7- In the Nestorian Christians
8- On time of paganism and ignorance in Arabia (Jahiliya)
9- On Christians’ fast, their festivals and their beliefs about Jesus
10- On the holy days and months
11- On Iranians’ celebrations and Nowruz (Iranian new year, celebrated on the first day of Farvardin “21 March” )
12- On riding and setting of the moon, the directions of the wind and astrolabe

It was translated into Persian by “Akbar Dana” and was published in 1984. The Arabic version was published in 1878.

Sources

The Left Monuments

Reyhanat al-Adab

Dehkhoda encyclopedia

Keywords


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