The Reasons of Religious Law

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The reasons of religious laws (Elal al- Sharaye ) is the name of on Arabic work written by the pre-eminent scholar Sheikh Saduq.

 

The author

Abu Jafar Muhammad Babwayh Qomi, known as “Ibn Babwayh” and “Sheikh Saduq” and “Ibn Babwayh”, a celebrated Shia jurisconsult and great traditionist in the 10th century. He was born in 900.
After primary education, he studied jurisprudence and Hadith in the presence of great jurisconsults and traditionists of Qom such as: his father (Ali Ibn Babwayh Qomi), Muhammad Ibn Hossein Ibn Walid, Ahmad Ibn Ali Qomi, Hossein Ibn Idris Qomi and other great scholars.
Sheikh Saduq lived in the reign of the Shia dynasty “Buyids” which ruled the great part of the Islamic world, therefore Sheikh Saduq travelled a lot to visit Shia scholars in different places.
In 936, learnt Hadith from “Abul Hasan Muhammad Asadi” in Rey – Iran. In 941, he learnt Prophetic Hadiths from the great scholars of Neishabour: “Aqbu Ali Hossein Beyhaqi” and “Abdul Rahman Abdus”. Also in Marv from: “Abul Hasan Muhammad Faqih” and “Abu Yusuf Rafe”.
And in other cities: Kufa, Mecca, Baghdad, Balkh and Sarakhs learnt more Hadiths.

In 948, by request of the Buyid caliph “Rukn al-Dowleh Deylami”, Sheikh Saduq was resident in Rey and became the religious leader of Shias.

Masters:
He studied under 252 masters, the following are the most famous ones:

1-    Ali Ibn Babwayh Qomi (his father)
2-    Muhammad Ibn Hasan Walid Qomi
3-    Ahmad Ibn Ali Qomi
4-    Ali Ibn Muhammad Qazvini
5-    Jafar Ibn Muhammad Shazan
6-    Jafar Ibn Muhammad Quluyeh
7-    Ali Ibn Ahmad Mehryar
8-    Abul Hasan Khiyuti
9-    Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Aswad

10- Muhammad Ibn Yaqub Kuleyni
11- Ahmad Ibn Ziad Hamedani
12- Ali Quruqi
13- Muhammad Leithi
14- Ibrahim Taleqani
15- Muhammad Jurjani
16- Hossein Maktabi

Students:

1-    Sheikh Mufid
2-    Muhammad Ibn Muhammad
3-    Hossein Ibn Abdullah
4-    Harun Talakbari
5-    Hossein Ibn Ali Ibn Babwayh (his brother)
6-    Hasan Ibn Hossein (his nephew)
7-    Hasan Qomi
8-    Ali Najashi
9-    Seyyed Murteza Alam al-Huda
10- Abul Barakat Jowzi
11- Muhammad Hamrani
12- Abul Qasem Khazaz

Works:
1-    Attributes of Shias
2-    Monotheism
3-    Ma’ani al-Akhbar
4-    The city of science (Madinat al-Ilm)
5-    Moqanna’ (On jurisprudence)
6-    Acquaintance
7-    The reasons for religious laws
8-    Proving the guardianship of Imam Ali (the 1st Imam of Shias)
9-    Perfecting the religion (Islam) and completing blessing
10-Oyun al-Akhbar
Habits (Khesal) ,etc.

Great scholars such as: Sheikh Tusi, Ibn Idris Helli, Ibn Shahr Ashub, Allameh Helli, Najashi, Fakhr al-Muhaqeqin and Allameh Bahr al-Ulum all have praised Sheikh Saduq.

He died in 991. His tomb is a place of pilgrimage in Rey – Iran.

 

The book structure

Te book includes 385 chapters including 1907 Hadiths (Prophetic traditions) from the Prophet and Shia Imams. Concerning the reasons of religious commandments

The reasons mentioned in the book are a small amount of the mysteries of religious commandments not the whole although there may be many in every religious commandment, but it would not be comprehended by everyone.

The following are some of the reasons of religious commandments mentioned in the book:

1- The reason of superiority of the Prophets and Imams over the angels

2- The reason of creation of human and the differences existing among human

3- The reason why Moses wished to die and why his tomb is unknown

4- The reason of friendship and enmity among people

5- The reason why there is no hair in the palm

6- The reason why God is not seen

7- The reason of advent of love, etc.

 

 

Sources

The Reasons of Religious Law

Keywords


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