Firm handle (Orvat Al-Vosqä)

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A juridical book, in “Fatwai” (religious decree) type, in Arabic. This book has been written by contemporary well-known jurist and Iranian shi’a scholar Seyyed Mohammad Kazem Tabatabi in 14A.D. In this book has been posed some chapter from juridical chapters in an unprecedented way. This book in the author’s life was as a practical treatise and after his death, about recent 100 years, has been considered by scholars and great men. It is one of the posed books in shi’a seminary and sometimes has been argued as “Khärej lesson”. (Khärej lesson means ####higher Islamic studies or specialized lesson).

The author’s brief biography:
Seyyed Mohammad Kazem the son of Abdolazim was born in a village in Yazd in 1831A.D. (1247A.H.). In adolescence he went to Isfahan for learning the religious sciences and studied under the Sheikh Mohammad-Baqer Najafi and the author of “Rozat Al-Janat” (gardens of paradise) till reached to the “Ijtihad” (religious endeavor) degree. Then for completing of his study emigrate to Holy Najaf, made many use of in presence of Mirza Shirazi (Mohammad Hassan) and other scholars till after his great master’s death started the instructing. Ayatollah Yazdi was considered by all people especially by scholars. In the time of Iran’s National movement has been decided to kill him, but the Arab’s chiefs and Masters in Najaf surrounded around his house and for protecting him have been very tried till the difficulty solved and the danger was past from him and consequently he was given the religious directorship. This grand Seyyed was master in more sciences, especially in Jafari jurisprudence. Therefore he excelled of time’s jurists and shias’ religious authority (marja’ taqlid). His seminary class in Najaf was the source of scholars and masters’ use. He explained the jurisprudence’s subjects with easy, simple and eloquent words. Sheikh Ali Mäzandaräni was one of his students. One of the benevolent monuments of this great scholar is the big school in Najaf. He died in Najaf in 29.41919A.D.(1337A.H.). His tomb is in Imam Ali’s sacred courtyard.

The book’s brief division and structure:
This work including 17 juridical books. In the beginning of the book has been posed the subjects about “Ijtihad”(religious endeavor) and imitation and with 72 problems (masa’le) has been pointed to the different angles of this subject. Other parts is relevant to the worships subjects in jurisprudence such as: ‘purity” (tahärat), “prayer” (namaz), fasting, “Itikaf” (taking seclusion in a mosque or holy shrine for prayers), “khums” (One Fifth), Hajj, Zakät” (alms), etc, and in the part of “Transactions in Jurisprudence” have been posed the subjects of “hire” (ijäreh), “mozärebe” (partnership of capital and labor), “partnership” (sherkat), “muzäre’e” (agricultural partnership for farming), “musäqät” (agricultural partnership for orchards), “surety” (zemän), “hawalah” marriage, will.

The book feature:
Text, multiplicity of “branches” (foru’) especially in new subjects, sequence and numbering in this branch is the most important features of the book. It has 3260 juridical branches which apparently it is the first juridical work that its branches’ items have been separated by numbering.

Explaining and glosses on the book:
After the death of this great scholar (Seyyed Mohammad Kazem Yazdi) some parts were published by the name of “Firm handle” (Orvat Al-vosqä)’s addenda which including the subjects such as: usury, “endowment” (waqf), “representative” (wekälat), contract, “giving or gift” (hebh) and arbitration. From the time of “Firm handle” (Orvat Al-Vosqa)’s book publishing up to now, the contemporary jurists’ viewpoints about the proposed viewpoints and subjects in this book has been published in the form of marginal comment, description and glosses. The most important jurists which have posed their viewpoints are: Mirza Husseini Naini, Sehiekh Abdol-karim Haeiri, Aqa Ziya Al-Din Iraqi, Seyyed Abul Hassan Isfani, Seyyed Hussein Broujeri, Seyyed Abdol Hadi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohsen Hakim, Seyyed Ahmad Khansari, Roohullah Khomeini, Seyyed Abul Qusem Khoei, Seyyed Mohammad Reza Golpayegani. Of course has been written other explanations on this book which will be explained in its place.

Persian translation:
This book has been translated in Persian by Sheikh Abbas Qomi and has been printed and published several times in Bagdad and Tehran by the name of “Al-Ghäyat Al-Qsva”.


1-“Firm handle” (Orvat Al-Vosqä) by Seyyed Mohammad Kazem TAbatabai yazdi

2- a preface on shi’a jurisprudence

3- generalities and bibliography

4- Reyhänat Al-Adab

5- Shiism encyclopedia


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