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The conspiracy to kill Jesus (a.s) and the myth of crucifixion-Part 2
The myth of the crucifixion
According to Christian books and sources, the Christian Doctrine can be outlined as follows: Trinity, entering the spiritual form into the physical body and finally accepting the physical punishment and crucifixion as the ransom for sinners. Killing by crucifying- the rood cross- had been of the very old traditions and used for criminals who had been guilty of heinous crimes. It was one of the worst forms of punishments. Accordingly, upon hearing about gallows and crucifying, people were horrified and got horripilate. For hanging, two wooden beams were used in such a way that one of them crossed from the middle of the other and formed something like the famous rood cross. The rood was made in such a way that it was matched the stature of the person by which he was carried. Then, the person was forced to lie down and his hands were fasted firmly with rope or nail to the two sides of the horizontal beam and his legs to the vertical beam. Then, they lifted up the wooden beams and placed the down side of it in a hole in a way that the distance between the ground level and feet of the condemned person was a meter (two cubits). The convict were left in this condition for one or a few days and then his both legs were amputated until he died on the gallows and sometimes they brought him down from the gallows and killed him. Although before crucifying, the convicts were tortured by amputating the lips, nose, fingers and genitals. It has to be mentioned that the worst disgrace for a folks was the conviction of one of his people for such crimes.
The truth about the crucifixion of Jesus
In brief it has to be said that there was a village in the Palestine which was called ((Nazareth)) in which Jesus (a.s) lived and there, he was chosen for prophethood. The Jewish scholars who believed that they are the Guardians of Torah and lived in the city of Jerusalem and there they interpreted the commandments of Torah as they liked and plundered people’s public asset. In this regard, the Quran says: “Indeed many of the scholars and the monks devour the wealth of people unjustly and avert [them] from the way of Allah” (Surah At-Tawbah-verse 34). When the Jewish scholars came to Jesus (a.s) and he was questioned by them and when they heard the answers to their questions, they went to other scholars and warned them about Jesus. They were determined to fight against the prophethood of Jesus (a.s) and make him known as a liar and adulterate _ we seek refuge in Allah _ among the people. Jesus became famous everywhere and even in the city of Jerusalem, people knew their name without seeing him. Jesus enters Jerusalem with his disciples in ((Passover)) and there he talks to the people and is revered by them. The Jewish clergies become aware of his arrival and decide to catch him. Jesus becomes aware of their decision and hides in one of the gardens of the city. For one or two days, he stays in a garden which is known as ((Gethsemane)).The Jewish clergies sends bellmen and proclaims everywhere that “whomever shows Jesus’s hideout will be rewarded thirty golden pieces”. One of Jesus’s apostles who was called "Judas Iscariot" in exchange for receiving the reward, shows his hideout to the chief clergies. The Jewish scholars asks ((Pilate)), the Roman ruler to arrest Jesus. He accepts their request and sends a group of troops to arrest Jesus. On the other hand, Jesus says to his apostles to prepare their swords and to stay awake at night so as to get rid of the risk. But his apostles neglect and fall asleep and Jesus - peace be upon him – goes to a corner which is far from them for doing prayer and invocation. It is so natural that Jesus uses the darkness of the night and leaves the garden. Judas enters the garden with the troops to show them Jesus. He came among the terrified apostles who fled around. Ironically Judas himself resembled Jesus. At that time a young Jewish who had seen Jesus, saw Judas and imagined that he was Jesus. He takes his collar and shouts that he has taken Jesus. Then the troops and thugs reach and constantly punch and kick him in a way that he could do nothing. Whatever he cries that he is not Jesus, no one pays attention, because they had not seen Jesus to know that he was not Jesus. Accordingly, in the next stage Judas is crucified instead of Jesus. This story has been fully-described in the ((Gospel of Barnabas)). The Christians believe that this gospel is not true because it has denied the story of Crucifixion of Jesus and has stated the truth. It has to be mentioned that if we are looking for a correct gospel, we must go for this gospel.
The denial of Crucifixion of Jesus by the Quran
The Quran has denied the Crucifixion of Jesus. Accordingly, in this regard the Quran says: “And [for] their saying, "Indeed, we have killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the messenger of Allah. And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them. And indeed, those who differ over it are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it except the following of assumption. And they did not kill him, for certain.” (Surah An-Nisa’-verse 157). However, they had not killed Jesus, nor had they crucified him, and they had made a mistake and had killed another person who resembled him. The Quran says in this verse: “they did not kill Jesus, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them. And they did not kill him, for certain”. However, all the four current Canonical Gospels have mentioned the Crucifixion of Jesus (a.s) (crucifying) and that he was killed and this issue has been fully described in the last chapters of all four Canonical Gospels (Matthew - Luke - Marks - John). It has to be mentioned that Christians have generally the same belief regarding this issue. From one aspect, it can be said that the issue of Crucifixion of Jesus (a.s) and killing him, constitute one of the most important foundations of the current Christian faith. For example, we know that current Christians do not believe that Jesus (a.s) is a prophet who has been created and has been sent down to guide and train the people but they believe that he is “the son of God!” and one of the Triple deity that the main purpose for his birth and entering this world has been to be a sacrifice for the sins of human beings. It is said that: he has come to be a sacrifice for our sins, he was crucified and was killed to wash away the sins of humans and to save the humanity from the punishment. Therefore, they believe that the only way of salvation is having faith in Jesus and believing in this issue! So, the Christianity is sometimes called the religion of “salvation” or “sacrifice” and the Messiah is called “the savior” or “sacrificed” and that we observe the Christians put great emphasis on the issue of cross and that their slogan is cross, does originate from this very issue. However, all Muslims believe that such a belief is invalid because:
Firstly: Jesus was a prophet like other prophets of God, he was neither God nor the son of God. God is only and unique and no one is like Him, and He also has no spouse or child.
Secondly: being a sacrifice for the sins of other people is totally something irrational because everybody is responsible for his own deeds and the only way of salvation is having faith and doing good deeds.
Thirdly: believing in “sacrifice” leads to more sins and it encourages people for corruption and doing evil deeds. If we observe that the Quran has put great emphasis on the issue that Jesus (a.s) was not crucified despite the fact that it may seem a simple issue, it is because the Quran wants to deny the superstitious belief of Christians regarding sacrificing for the sins of nation and to prevent them from this belief. It make them believe the salvation depends only upon their own deeds and not upon taking refuge in the cross.
Fourthly, there are some evidences that that reduces the probability of the issue of crucifixion of Jesus (a.s):
1.We know that all the four current Canonical Gospels which are regarded as evidences for supporting the issue of crucifixion of Jesus (a.s) have been written by his apostles or disciples of his apostles many years after the death of Messiah (a.s) and the Christian historians also admit it. According to the Canonical Gospels, we also know that the apostles of Messiah fled when the enemies attacked, therefore the issue of crucifixion of Jesus (a.s) has been spread by word of mouth. Additionally, as we will mention later, some events happened and a mistake was made by which another person was killed instead of Jesus.
2.Another factor which gave rise to the mistake by which another person was killed instead of Jesus (a.s) was that those who have gone out of the city to the garden of ((Gethsemane)) for arresting Jesus, were a group of Roman troops who were performing their army related duties in the camps. This group did not know the Jews, nor were they familiar with their rituals and language, nor were they able to distinguish Jesus from his apostles.
3.In the Canonical Gospels it has been mentioned that the attack was done at night and in that situation, it was possible for the person who were supposed to have been killed to flee from the scene and another person to have been killed instead.
4.According to the Canonical Gospels the person who had caught up was silent in front of "Pilate" (the Roman ruler in Jerusalem) and less talked and defended himself in response to their statements. So such a thing is so unlikely because if Jesus had been in danger, he could have definitely defended himself with bravery and courage and his eloquent speeches. Wasn’t it possible that someone else (most probably Judas Iscariot who betrayed Jesus, and played the role of the spy and as it is said he was very similar in appearance to Jesus Christ) had been arrested instead of him and that person had not been able to talk and defend himself due to the severe horror and anxiety. Especially, we read in the Canonical Gospels that “Judas Iscariot” was not seen any more after this incident and according to the gospels he committed suicide!
5.According to Canonical Gospels when the enemies attacked, Jesus’s apostles fled from there and naturally other friends also hid that day and from far away they monitored the situation. Therefore, the arrested man must have been surrounded by the Roman troops without any of his friends around him. As a result, it is not surprising that a mistake has been made.
6.In the Gospels we read that the convicted person on the gallows complained to God that why God has left him alone and has handed over to the enemy to kill him! If Jesus (a.s) was born to be a sacrifice for the sins of human beings then, such a statement from Jesus would be very inappropriate. This statement clearly indicates that the crucified person was a poor guy, timid and weak who could have said such statements and therefore, he couldn't have been Jesus.
7.Some of the current Gospels (except the four Canonical Gospels which are accepted by Christians) including the Gospel of Barnabas has formally denied the crucifixion of Jesus (a.s). Likewise, some Christian sects have doubts regarding the crucifixion of Jesus and even some researchers believe that there are two people in the history by the name of Jesus: one of them is “the crucified Jesus” and the other is the “non-crucified Jesus” that the time distance between these two people has been five hundred years! In general, the above mentioned evidences prove and clarify the validity of the statements of the Quran regarding killing Jesus and his crucifixion.
The reason why the Quran insists that Jesus (a.s) was not crucified
Why the Quran insists that Jesus (a.s) was not killed by the Jews and not crucified by them? Why the shape of the cross has surrounded the world of Christianity but the Quran totally denies that? Accordingly, in this regard the Quran says: “And [for] their saying, "Indeed, we have killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, (the messenger of Allah)." And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them. And indeed, those who differ over it are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it except the following of assumption. And they did not kill him, for certain. Rather, Allah raised him to Himself. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.” (Surah An-Nisa’-verses 157-158). The reason for such denial is that, this superstition has become a common belief among the Christians and as in Islam it is said that those who do not believe in the statement of “There is no God but Allah” they won’t be of Paradise dwellers, the Christian also believe that if someone do not believe in the cross and Crucifixion of Jesus, he will be of the hell dwellers. They have stated that: by killing Jesus, God forgave the sins of the all human beings! Here we only relate the story and do not try to deny it because the Quran has denied this issue and it is enough. According to Tafsir al-Mizan and Tafsir Al-Manar: the Christians believe that the Crucifixion of Jesus is the basis for their religion and invitation. Accordingly, they believe that whomever do not believe in the cross and Crucifixion of Jesus, will be of the hell dwellers in the Hereafter. Whomever that believes, shall be saved, and he will be with Jesus in the hereafter. They also say that: Since Adam ate from the forbidden tree and became a sinner, inevitably, he and his children deserved the punishment. So his children committed sin and they deserved the punishment and accordingly they deserved the punishment by virtue of their father. On the other hand, since God is both just and merciful, there will be a great contradiction. Because forgiving Adam and his children is inconsistence with justice and punishment of God and it is against his mercy. In short, it has to be said that mercy and forgiveness and also justice and punishment do co-exist. The problem remained unsolved until God solved God solved it through Jesus Christ. Thus, God entered his son who was at the same God to the womb of a woman from the ancestors of Adam and he was born from her as a perfect man. He was innocent without having any sin. He lived with the people and for a while he used the foods and drinks. He was a perfect human because he was born form a perfect human too and at the same time he was God, because the son of God is God himself! Then God made the enemies dominate him and kill him in the most tragic way which was hanging and crucifying. However, the crucified person has always been cursed in the Divine Book. Accordingly Jesus suffered from curse and crucifying in order to atone for the sins of mankind.
Paul the Apostle who is the creator of superstitious belief of Trinity says in Chapter three, Section Thirteen of Book of Galatians: “Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us, for it is written: “Cursed is everyone who is hung on a pole.” John says in his first book, chapter two and in the first paragraph:” My dear children, I write this to you so that you will not sin. But if anybody does sin, we have an advocate with the Father--Jesus Christ, the Righteous One. It means that he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for ours but also for the sins of the whole world!!” That is why the shape of a cross is always a decoration for all Christian’s churches and houses and the priests always have a cross with a golden chain in their necks. According to the Quran the of crucifixion of Jesus and his killing is a lie and it is totally baseless. The Qurans says that Jesus was not killed by the Jews nor was the story of his atoning sacrifice for our sins true. Therefore, the verse “And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them” clearly indicates that firstly: Jesus was not killed by the Jews, nor was he crucified and, secondly: it is only a myth that he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins.
1 - Tafsir Nemooneh, vol. 4, p. 198, Vol. 2, p. 565, vol. 2, pp. 569-570
2 - Tafsir al-Mizan, vol. 3, p. 497, vol. 5, p. 216, vol. 3, p. 323
3 - Thematic interpretation of Ayatollah Javadi Amoli, vol. 4 p. 232
4 - Manshoor Javed, p. 400
5 – Article of Jesus (a.s) is alive, by Hujjat al-Islam Haj Seyed Ali Akbar Qureshi
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