Some issues about the revelation of the Qur’an

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The order of revelation of the chapters
The following is the order of revelation of the Qur’an (beginning with the Meccan verse):

The first revealed chapters and verse
(1) Read in the name of your Lord. (XCVI:1)
(2) Nun. (LXVIII:1)
(3) O, you wrapped up in your raiment (LXXIII:1)
(4) O you wrapped up in your cloak (LXXIV:1)
(5) The power of Abu Lahab will perish.(CXI;1)
(6) when the sun is overthrown (LXXXI:1)
(7) Praise the name of your Lord, the Most Hight. (LXXXVII:1)
(8) By the night enshrouding. (XCII:1)
(9) By the Dawn.( LXXXIX;1)
(10) By the morning house (XCIII:1)
(11) Have we not caused your breast to expand (XCIV:1)
(12) By the declining day. (CIII:1)
(13) The Courses.(C:1)
(14) Indeed, we have given you abundance.(CVIII:1)
(15) Rivalry in worldly increase distracts you (CII:1)
(16) Have you observed him who denies the din.(CVII:1)
(17) Say:O disbelievers! (CIX: 1)
(18) Have you not seen Lord dealt with the owners of the elephant (CV:1)
(19) Say:I seek refuge in the Lord of the daybreak (CXIII: 1)
(20) Say:I seek refuge in the Lord of Mankind (CXIV:1)
(21) Say: He is God, the One (CXII:1)
(22) By the star. (LIII:1)
(23) He Frowned (LXXX:1)
(24) Indeed, we have revealed it on the Night of Power (XCVII:1)
(25)By the sun and its brightness (XCI:1)
(26) By the heaven, holding mountains of the stars. (LXXXV:1)
(27) By the Fig (XCV:1)
(28)For the Taming of the Quraish. (CVI:1)
(29) The Calamity .(CI:1)
(30) No, I swear by the Day of Resurrection. ( LXXV:1)
(31) Woe to every slandering traducer. ( CIV:1)
(32) By the emissary winds (LXXVII:1)
(33) Qaf.(L:1)
(34) No, I swear by this city. (XC:1)
(35) By the heaven and the morning star.( LXXXVI:1)
(36) The hour drew near. (LIV:1)
(37) Sad.(XXXVIII:1)
(38)The Heights. ( VII:1)
(39) Say ( O Muhammad): it is revealed ….(LXXII:1)
(40) Ya Sin. (XXXVI:1)
(41)The Criterion. ( XXV:1)
(42) The Angels. ( XXXV:1)
(43) Kaf HaYa ‘ Ayn Sad. (XIX:1)
(44) Ta’ ha. (XX:1)
(45) The Reality.(LVI:1)
(46) Ta Sin Mim ( The Poets). (XXXVI:1)
(47) Ta Sin. (XXVII:1)
(48) The story .(XXVIII:1)
(49) The Children of Israel (XVII:1)
(50) Jonah. (X:1)
(51) Hud. (XI:1)
(52) Joseph (XII:1)
(53)The Exile ( XV:1)
(54) The Cattle.( VI:1)
(55)Those who set the ranks (XXXVI:1)
(56) Luqman. ( XXXI:1)
(57) Saba. ( XXXIV:1)
(58) The Troops. (XXXIX:1)
(59) Ha Mim ( The Believers ) (XL:1)
(60) Ha Mim ( The Prostration of Fussilat).(XLI:1)
(61) Ha Mim Ayn sin Qaf. (XLII:1)
(62) Ha Mim Ornaments of God. (XLIII:1)
(63) Smoke. (XLIV:1)
(64) Crouching. (XLVI:1)
(65) The Wind Curved Sandhills.(XLVI:1)
(66) The Winnowing Winds,(LI:1)
(67) The Overwhelming .(LXXXVIII:1)
(68) The Cave.(XVIII:1)
(69) The Bee.(XVI:1)
(70) Indeed We Sent Noah.(LXXI:1)
(71)Abraham.(XIV:1)
(72) The Prophets .(XXI:1)
(73) The Believers.(XXIII:1)
(74) The Prostration. (XXXII:1)
(75) Mount Sinai .(LII:1)
(76)The Sovereignty. (LXVII:1)
(77) The Reality. (LXIX:1)
(78) A Questioner Questioned. (LXX:1)
(79) About What do They question one another (LXXVIII:1)
(80) Those who drag forth.(LXXIX:1)
(81) When the heaven is cleft apart. (LXXXII:1)
(82) When the heaven is split asunder .(LXXXIV:1)
(83) The Romans ( XXX:1)
(84) The Spider (XXIX:1)
(85) Woe to the defrauders .( LXXXIII:1)
(86) The Cow.(II:1)
(87) The Spider of War .(VIII:1)
(88) The Family of Imran. ( III:1)
(89) The Clans .(XXXIII:1)
(90) She is to be examined .(LX:1)
(91) Women. (IV:1)
(92) When the earth is shaken (XCIX:1)
(93) Iron. (LVII:1)
(94) Muhammad. (XLVII:1)
(95)The Thunder (XIII:1)
(96) The Beneficent (LV:1)
(97) Man.(LXXVI:1)
(98)Divorce.(LXV:1)
(99)The Clear Proof.(XCVIII:1)
(100)Exile .(LIX:1)
(101)When God’s help arrives.(CX:1)
(102) Light .( XXIV:1)
(103) The Pilgrimage. (XXII:1)
(104) The Hypocrites. (LXII:1)
(105) She that Disputes. (LVIII:1)
(106) The private Apartments .(XLIX:1)
(107) Banning .( LXVI:1)
(108) The Congregation. (LXII:1)
(109) Mutual Disillusion. (LXIV:1)
(110) The Ranks. (LXI:1)
(111)Victory .( XLVIII:1)
(112)The Table Spread. ( V:1)
(113) The Immunity (Repentance). (IX:1)

Studying the narrations about the order of revelation of chapters
Further Traditions Concerning the Order and Place of Revelation of the Chapters
The tradition of Ibn Abbas mentions one hundred and thirteen Chapters, the chapter “al- Fatihah” not being counted among them. There is another saying, related by al- Bayhaqi from Ikrimah, which enumerates one hundred and eleven chapter, the three chapters “al- Fatihah” “The Heights” and “Counsel” not being mentioned. When al- Bayhaqi relates this same tradition from Ibn Abbas it includes all one hundredand fourteen chapters. The tradition of al- Bayhaqi reckons “The Defrauders” as one of the Medinan chapters in opposition to the other tradition which count it as Meccan. The order mentioned in these two traditions for both the Meccan and Medinan chapters is different from that of other traditions.

Another tradition, related from Ali ibn Talhah, says: The chapter “The Cow” was revealed in Medinan and “The Family of Imran, “Women”, “The Table Spread ,” “Spirits of War ,” “Repentance,” “The Pilfrimage”, “Light” ,“ The Clans”, “Those Who Deny”, “Victory,” “Iron,” “She That Disputes”, “Exile”, “She That Is To Be Examind,” “The Helpers of Allah ( The Ranks )”, “Muttual Disillusion,” “O Prophet if you divorce women,” “O Prophet why do you ban,” “The Dawn”, “The Night ,” “We have revealed to in the night of power.” “The clear Proof ,” “When the earth shakes”, “When the help of Allah comes,” and the rest of the chapters were revealed in Mecca.

The intention of the tradition seem only to establish the difference between the Medinan and Meccan chapters and to define the order of revelation of the chapters mentioned. They chapters “Table Spread” and “Repentance” are, without doubt, later in revelation than that indicated in this tradition Moreover, chapters “The Dawn” “The Night”, and “The Night of Power,” are counted as Medinan chapters, whereas the above tradition counts them as Meccan. Likewise, “The Thunder”, “The Beneficent,” “Men” “The Congregation”, “The Private Apartments” are considered as Meccan, Where as in the above tradition they are counted as Medinan.

In another tradition byQatadah, “The Cow” ,“The Family of Imran,” “Women” “The Table Spread”, “Immunity”, “The hunder,” “TheBee”, “The pilgrimage”, “The Light”, “The Clans”, “Muhammad”, “Victory”, “The Private Apartments”, “Iron” ,”The Beneficent”, “She that disputes,” “Exile,” “She that is to Examined”, “The Ranks”, “The Congregation”, “The Hypocrites” “Mutual Disllusion”, “Divorce, the first thirteen verses of “O You Prophet! Why do you ban,” “ When the earth Shakes” and “ When the help of Allah comes,” were revealed in Medina and the east in Mecca. This tradition is contrary to the previous of “The Defrauders,” “Man” and “The Clear Proof”.

This tradition is, however, unacceptable according to the Science of traditions, being disconnected from direct transmission from the Prophet. It is also unclear whether Ibn Abbas learned of the order of revelation from the Prophet himself or from some other unidentified person, or arrived at it by subjective decision.

If the latter is the case, it has no value or authenticity but for himself. It has also no value historically, as Ibn Abbas did not have close contact with the Prophet. It is obvious that he could not have been present nor a witness to the revelation of all these chapters. Even if we suppose the tradition to be true, it is still not totally acceptable in matters outside the law of the shari’ah.

The only way to discover the true order of the chapters, and whether they are Meccan or Medinan, is to examine the content of the chapters and to compare them with the circumstances and social reality before and after the migration. Such a method is effective in certain cases, the content of chapters “Men” “The Coursers” and the “Defrauders” testify to their being Medinan, althought some of these traditions only establish them as Meccan.

Sources

The quran in islam -pages: 92to97

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