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a. philosophy of finality of prophet hood from the viewpoint of lqbal
The eminent scholar and great Muslim thinker, Dr Iqbal, in spite of his extraordinarily intelligent discussions of the Islamic questions by which we have personally been greatly benefited and of has been involved in a great misunderstanding while explaining the philosophy of the finality of Prophet hood. He has based his conclusions on certain points, which we mention below, point by point:
1.Expansion of revelation from inorganic material to man
The word wahi (revelation) which literally means to whisper’, has been used by the Holy Qur’an in an expanded sense to include every kind of inspired guidance whether its recipient be inorganic material, plants, animals or man. He says: “This contact with the root of his own being is by no means peculiar to mean. Indeed the way in which the word wahi is used in the Holy Qur’an shows that the Holy Qur’an regards it as a universal property of life, though its nature and character are different at different stages of the evolution of life. The plant growing freely in space, the animal developing a new organ to suit a new environment, and a human being receiving light from the inner depths of life, are all cases of inspiration varying in character according to the needs of the recipient, or the needs of the species to which the recipient belongs.” (The Reconstruction of Religious Thought is Islam, p. 125).
2.Instinctive aspect of revelation
Wahi or revelation is sort of instinct and the guidance by means of revelations is a sort of instinctive guidance. Wahi is guidance from collective point of view. Human society being a moving unit and subject to the laws of motion, is definitely in need of guidance. The Prophet is just like a receiving set which instinctively receives what is required by mankind in this respect. Dr Iqbal says: “The world-life intuitively sees its own needs and at critical moments defines its own direction. This is what, in the language of religion, we call Prophetic revelation.” (The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, p.147).
In their primitive stage the living beings are guided by their instinct. As they go to the higher stages of evolution and their faculties of feeling, imagination and thinking develop, the power of instinct is reduced and is replaced by feeling and thinking power. Thus the insects have the most numerous and the strongest instincts and man the weakest and the smallest in number.
Being replaced of intuitive and intellectual guidance by instinctive guidance
From sociological point of view human society is passing through an evolutionary process. Just as the animals in their primary stages have been in need of instinct and have gradually developed their faculties of feeling and imagination, and in certain cases of thinking also, and their instinctive guidance has been replaced by the guidance trough feeling and imagination, similarly man in his evolutionary process has gradually reached a stage in which his rationality has so developed that his instinctive power (wahi or inspiration) has weakened. Dr Iqbal says: “During the minority of mankind psychic energy develops what I call Prophetic consciousness- a mode of economizing individual thought and choice by providing ready –made judgements, choices and ways of action. With the birth of reason and critical faculty, however, life in its own interest inhibits the formation and growth of non-rational modes of consciousness through which psychic energy flowed at an earlier stage of human evolution. Man is primarily governed by passion and instinct. Inductive reason, which alone makes man master of his environments, is in itself an achievement. Once born it must be reinforced by inhibiting the growth of other modes of knowledge.” (The Reconstruction of Religious Thought is Islam, p.125).
4.Revelation is belonged to the childhood period of man
Basically the world has passed through two ages: the age of inspiration and the age of rational thinking and reflection on nature and history. The ancient world produced a few great systems of philosophy (like Greek and Roman). Anyhow their value was limited as humanity was still passing through the period of its minority. Dr Iqbal says: “There is no doubt that that ancient world produced some great systems of philosophy at a time when man was comparatively primitive and governed more or less by suggestion. But we must not forget that this system-building in the world was the work of abstract thought, which cannot go beyond the systematization of vague religious beliefs and traditions. and gives us no hold on the concrete situations of life.” (The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, p.126).
The Holy Prophet with whom Prophet hood came to an end, belonged to the ancient as well as the modern world. As the source of his inspiration was revelation and not the experimental study of nature and history, he belonged to the ancient world, but as the spirit of the his teachings called for rational thinking and the study of nature and history with the birth of which the job of revelation is terminated, he belonged to the modern world. Dr lqbal says: “Looking at the matter from this point of view, the Prophets of Islam seems to stand between the ancient and the modern world. In so far as the source of his revelation is concerned, he belongs to the ancient world, and in so far the spirit of his revelation is concerned, he belongs to the modern world. In him life discovers other sources of knowledge suitable to its new direction. The birth of Islam is the birth of inductive intellect. In Islam prophecy reaches its perfection in discovering the need of its own abolition. This involves the keen perception that life cannot forever be kept in leading strings, hence, in order to achieve full self- consciousness, man must finally be thrown back on his own resources. The abolition of priesthood and hereditary kingship in Islam, the constant appeal to reason and experience in the Holy Qur’an and the emphasis it lays on Nature and History as sources of human knowledge, are all different aspects of the same idea of finality” (The Reconstruction of Religious Thought is Islam, p. 126).
C. Analysing the main point of philosophy of finality of philosophy from viewpoint of lqbal
There are the main points of philosophy of the finality of Prophet hood as conceived by Dr Iqbal. Unfortunately this philosophy is unsound and several of its principles are incorrect.
1.Finality of religion and revelation with a belief in instinctive revelation
The first objection to which it is amenable is that if this philosophy was accepted, that would mean that not only there was no longer any need of a new Prophet or a new revelation, but that there was also no need of any guidance by revelation at all, for experimental intellect had taken its place. This philosophy is the philosophy of the end of religion and not that of the finality of Prophet hood. If this philosophy was accepted, the only thing that Islamic revelation could do was to proclaim the end of the era of religion and the beginning of the era of reason and science. Evidently this idea is not only contrary to the belief in the necessity of Islam but is also contrary to the view held by Dr Iqbal himself. All his efforts in fact. are directed to prove that reason and science though necessary for human society are not enough. Man requires faith and religion as much as he requires science and knowledge. Dr Iqbal says in clear terms that life is need of fixed principles as well as changing minor factors, and that ijtihad is meant to apply the set principles to the specific situations. He says; “The new culture finds the foundation of world- unity in the principle of Tawhid (monotheism). Islam as a polity is the only practical means of making this principle a living factor in the intellectual and emotional life of making. It demands loyalty to Allah, not to thrones, And since Allah is the ultimate spiritual basis of all life, loyalty to Him virtually amounts to man’s loyalty to his own ideal nature. The ultimate spiritual basis of all life, as conceived by Islam, is eternal and reveals itself in variety and change.
A society based on such a conception of reality must reconcile, in its life, to the categories of permanence and change. It must possess eternal principles to regulate its collective life, because eternity gives us a foothold in the world of perpetual change. But eternal principles when they are understood to exclude all possibilities of change which, according to the Holy Qur’an. is one of the greatest signs of Allah, tend to immobilize what is essentially mobile I its nature. The failure of Europe in political and social science illustrates the former principle, the immobility of Islam during the last 500 years illustrates the later. What then is the principle of movement in Islam? This is known as “ijtihad .”(The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. p. 147).
According to the above statement. guidance of revelation will always be required. and the guidance provided by experimental intellect will never be able to take its place. Dr Iqbal himself supports the principle of the permanent need of guidance. But the philosophy he has put forward to explain the finality of Prophet hood. requires that not only there should be no need of any new Prophet and new revelation, but that religion itself should come to an end.
This misleading interpretation of finality by Dr Iqbal means that man’s need of guidance and education by the Prophet is of the same nature as the need of a class by a child. The child every year goes to the next class and changes his teacher. Similarly man in every period has gone to the next stage, and required a new code of religious law. When the child reaches the final class, he completes his education and gets a certificate to that effect. Thereafter he is no longer in need of a teacher and can carry on his research independently. In the same way the man of the age of finality with the proclamation of the end of Prophet hood has secured the certificate of the completion of his education. He can now undertake the study of Nature and History independently. That is what ijtihad means. With the end Prophet hood man has reached the stage of self- sufficiency.
There is no doubt that such an interpretation of the finality of Prophet hood is wrong. The consequent results of this sort of interpretation are acceptable neither to Dr Iqbal himself, nor to those who have drawn these conclusions from what he has stated.
2. Invalidation of inner experience by appearance of experimental experience
Further, should the view of Dr Iqbar be correct, the thing which he calls inner experience (spiritual light and inspirations received by saintly persons) should also cease to exist, for it is also supposedly a part of the instinct which languishes with the appearance of experimental intellect. But according to Dr Iqbar that mystic experience still continues to exist. He assets that from Islamic point of view inner experience is one of the three sources of human knowledge, the other two being Nature and History. Personally also Dr Iqbar has a strong mystic tendency. He firmly believes in inspiration. He says” “The idea however, does not mean that mystic experience, which qualitatively does not differ from the experience of the Prophets, has now ceased to exist as a vital fact. Indeed the Holy Qur’an regards both Anfus (self) and Afaq ( world) as sources of knowledge. Allah reveals His signs in inner as well as outer experience, and it is the duty of man to judge the knowledge yielding capacity of all aspects of experience. The idea of finality, therefore, should not be taken to suggest that the ultimate fate of life is complete displacement of emotion by reason. Such a thing is neither possible nor desirable. The intellectual value of the idea is that it tends to create an independent critical attitude towards mystic experience by generating the that all personal authority, claiming a supernatural origin has come to an end in the history of man open to critical scrutiny other aspects of human experience.” (The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, p. 126).
What Dr Iqbal means to say is that with the end of Prophet hood the inspirations and miracles of the saintly persons have not come to an end, though they are no longer so authoritative as they were in the past. Prior to the birth of experimented intellect, miracles had a perfectly natural authority. They were not open to any doubt. But for the intellectually developed man (of the age of finality) these things have ceased to be authoritative, and are now like other occurrences and phenomena open to critical scrutiny. Pre-finality period was that of miracles and supernatural events, but the age of finality is the age of reason, which does not regard any supernatural occurrence as a proof anything. It judges every reality discovered through a mystic experience in accordance with its own standards.
This part of the remarks of Dr Iqbal is also not sound, neither in regard to the pre-finality nor in regard to the post finality period.
3. Preference of revelation guidance to other guidance
Furthermore, the view expressed by Dr lqbal that revelation is a sort of instinct, is also wrong. This view has led him to make several other mistakes. As Dr lqbal himself is fully conscious of the fact, an instinct is a purely innate, unacquired and unconscious propensity. It is a faculty lower than senses and intellect with the primitive animals such as insects and other animals of a class lower than of insects, have been provided according to the law of creation. With the development of other means of guidance such as senses and intellect, instinct is weakened and becomes dormant. That is why man who among the animals enjoys the highest degree of thinking power, has the weakest instinctive power.
In contrast, revelation is a means of guidance which ranks higher than senses and intellect and to a great extent is something which is acquired. Above all, it is the highest degree of consciousness, and the field in which it makes discoveries is far vaster than the field in which experimental intellect can work.
In view of the variety of the individual and social capabilities of man, complexity of his social relations and the dubiousness of the end of his evolutionary journey, the ideologies propounded by the philosophers and sociologists are misleading and bewildering. There is only one way open to man to have a sound ideology and that is the way of revelation. If we do not accept the way of revelation, we shall have to admit that man is unable to have an ideology at all.
The modern thinkers believe that the future line of the development of mankind can be determined through human ideologies only stage by stage. In other words, at every stage only the next stage can be determined, and that too according to the belied of these gentlemen. As for the subsequent stages and whether there exists any final stage at all, nothing is known.
The fate of such ideologies is evident.
We wish that Dr lqbal who, more or less studied the works of the Muslim gnostics and was especially devoted to the Mathnavi of Rumi, could gone deeper into these works and found a better explanation of the finality of Prophet hood. The gnostics say that Prophet hood terminated because all the individuals and social stages of human development along with the way that should follow to attain them were revealed all together. As thereafter none could discover anything additional, it was the duty everyone to follow this last message.
The sufis say: that the final is he, who has finalized all stages, and leaves no stage uncovered. This is the basis of finality, not development of the experimental intelligence of society as a conceived by Dr lqbal. If he had made a deeper study of the works of only those sufis to whom he himself was devoted, (like Rumi), he could know that revelation is not an instinct. It is a spirit and soul superior to the rational spirit. Rumi, the mystic poet says: “Know that the soul of man is different from that of a cow and a donkey, and again the soul of a Prophet and a saint (holy man) is different from that of ordinary man.”
“The body is visible, but the soul is hidden. Again intellect is more hidden than soul. The spirit of revelation is still more hidden. The intellect of the Holy Prophet could be perceived by anybody. But the spirit of was not perceptible.”
“He was guided by the protected Tablet and that is why was protected from any mistake and error. Divine revelation is neither astrology nor geomancy nor a dream. It is a fact and reality.”
4. Being replaced of knowledge and instinct by faith
It appears that Dr lqbal has unconsciously made the same mistake as was made by the Western world, which holds that knowledge has replaced faith. Of course Dr lqbal was severely opposed to this theory of replacement. But his philosophy of the finality of Prophet hood somehow leads to the same conclusion. Dr lqbal describes as a sort of an instinct. He also asserts that instincts cease to function when intellectual and thinking faculties begin to work. This remark of his is correct but is applicable to those cases in which thinking power performs the same function that was previously performed by an instinct. But in those cases in which their functions are different, there is no reason why an instinct should cease to work when thinking power becomes active. Therefore even if we suppose that Divine revelation is a sort of instinct whose function is to put forward a sort of world conception and an ideology not produced by intellect and thinking power, there is no reason why with the development of inductive intellect. in the words of Dr lqbal, the function of this instinct should come to an end.
The fact is that Dr lqbal in spite of all his outstanding talent, extraordinary intelligence and love of Islam is basically a product of Western culture. for his entire education was Western, though he made some studies in Islamic culture. especially in Islamic law, mysticism and philosophy. That is the reason why he sometimes makes graves mistakes.
Man and Universe- part Revelation and Prophethood- pages: 142to151
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