The sources of Islamic teaching

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The Holly Koran, Prophetic tradition (Sunnah) and Divine law are known as the resources of Islamic teaching and culture.
 

The Koran
The Noble Koran is considered as a Holy Book in view of all Muslims throughout the world. All the words in the Koran have been presented by God. This Divine Book has been revealed to the Prophet (Muhammad) during 23 years (his prophetic mission) as his great miracle.  
The first Koranic verses revealed to the Holy Prophet were the verses of the Noble surah “clot” (The 96th surah of the Koran Arabic name: “Alaq; at the age of 40)
At the time of revealing the Koran by Gabriel, (the angel set down to reveal Koran to the Prophet) the Prophet recited and repeated the verses to his companions and they memorized them, therefore the exact time and the place of all the verses are defined. The Holy Koran is the only Divine Book in the universe which has been guaranteed to be preserved  by God himself , while other Diviner Books were supposed to be preserved by ones to whom they were revealed, therefore the Koran will be never distorted. When the Divine Book was revealed to the Prophet it was written by the companions and Imam Ali (the 1st Shia Imam), in order to be preserved, when the prophet passed away, the writing continued in time of the 1st caliph “Abubakr” and after the death of the caliph it finished during the caliphate of the 3rd caliph “Othman” then it spread throughout the Islamic world.
 

Prophetic Tradition
Prophetic Tradition (Sunnah) refers to the prophets’ altitudes, behaviour and speech as the best sample for the Islamic society as well as Muslims to follow him in order to attain great morals. Hadith (tradition) refers to the wide range of prophetic words which have been then collected by traditions, in order to be preserved in Sunni religion.
The prophetic tradition (hadith) are collected in a series called “The six corrections” (sehah-e seteh), and in shia it is done in four Hadith books called “the four Books” (kotob-e Arbeh).
The Holy Koran is the main source of Haditth, in other words Prophetic Hadith is the first Koranic commentary, and in fact Hadith help understanding Koranic verses, more over performing the religious such as: daily prayers hajj, etc. should be learnt through Hadith.

 Divine law
Divine law refers to all the commandments created by God for human life the Noble Koran is considered as the main source of Divine law.  
Divine law concerns the religious issues: prayer, fasting hajj, alms, jihad, and etc. as well as economic, social, political and family issues.  For better comprehending Divine law, besides referring to the Koran it is also essential to consider prophetic Hadith. The first and the greatest master of Diviner law is “Imam Sadeq” (the 6th Shia Imam) who is respected by both religious Islamic braches Shia and Sunni. His holiness Jafar Sadeq (peace be upon him) is considered as the founder of Shia set.known as Imamiya or the twelve. The most celebrated Shia and sunni sects are, Jafari, Maleki, Hanafi , Hanfali and shafei, there are also some other some other sects as. Zaydiyeh Ismailiya.

 

منـابـع

Young Muslim and the modern world (Hossein Nasr)

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