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Muḥammad ibn ‘Ali al-Baqer (676-743 AD or 1 Rajab 57 AH – 7 Dhu al-Hijjah 114 AH) was the Fifth Imām to the Twelver Shī‘ah and Fourth Imām to the Ismā‘īlī Shī‘ah. His father was the previous Imām, ‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn, and his mother was Fatima bint al-Hasan. He is highly respected by Shia Muslims for his religious knowledge and Islamic scholarship. Muhammad al-Baqer was born on the 1st of the month of Rajab, 57th Hijra, in the city of Medina. Because of his resemblance to his great-grandfather he was named Muhammad, because of it that he analyzed ####the knowledge and made manifest its secrets he became known with the title of al-Baqer. He was the first Imam whose lineage ascended and reached the Islamic prophet Muhammad both from the paternal and maternal sides. His life history can be divided into two parts:
• the period before his Imamate, led in Medina, that is nearly 35 years and was the peaceful part of his life
• the Period of Imamate, which stretched up to 20 years and is counted as the duration of his propagation and dissemination of Islamic knowledge and wisdom.
Muhammad al-Baqer was awarded the title Baqer al-'Ulum "Revealer of Knowledge" because of his religious and judicial knowledge and his enthusiasm to teach. Muhammad al-Baqer’s son, Ja'far al-Sadeq, was his student and benefited from his knowledge. He founded the precursor of Shī‘ah jurisprudence.
During the Umayyad rulers
Despite his aversion to politics, the Umayyad rulers harassed Muhammad al-Baqer for fear of his popularity and influence. The actions of his brother and other kinsmen made them distrust him.
Muhammad al-Baqer was poisoned by the order of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik on 7 Dhu al-Hijjah 114 at the age of 57 years. His body was buried beside the graves of other Imams in the graveyard Of Janatul Baqiee.
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