Tamhid Al-ghavaed

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Tamhid Al-ghavaed is a philosophy book about “theoretical Sufism”(erfane Nazari). Its author is “Sa-en Aldin Ali Ibn Mohamma Turkeh Isfehani”, famous to “Ibn Turkeh” , the philosopher and Gnostic of 8 and 9 century A.H.
The complete name of book is “Tamhid Fi Sharh Resaleh Ghava-ed Al-Tawhid”. This book is a description of “Ghava-ed Al-Tawhid” by “Abu Hamed Sadre Aldin Mohammad Turkeh Isfehani”, the philosopher and gnosic of 7 and 8 century A.H., and the father or grandfather of the book author. The book subjects are about ####argumentative and more gnostic reasons in proofing of “The Necessary Being”( wujude vajeb), His “attributes of Perfection”(sefate kamaliyeh), “God’s Acts”(Af-ale Hagh) , the “Man” and world relationship with God.

Author’s brief biography
“Sa-en Aldin Ali” is the philosopher, Gnostic, jurisconsult, poet and literary man of 8 and 9 century A.H. He is famous to “Ibn Turkeh” , “Turkeh Khajandi” and other names and his patronymic is “Abumohammd”. His father “Mohammad” and his grandfather “Abuhamed Sadr Al-din Turkeh Isfehani” the philosopher and Gnostic of 7 and 8 century A.H. are the great family of scholar of “Turkeh Isfehani in 7 to 10 century A.H. “Sa-en Al-din” is the most famous and important person of this great family. His date of birth is about 1369A.D.(770A.H.) and his place of birth probably was in Isfehan. For many years, learned “religious studies” (theological studies) such as: “Hadith”(tradition), “commentary”(exegesis), “jurisprudence”(fegh) and “methodology”(usul) under the supervision of his brother who also was scholars of that time in 1387A.D. (789A.H).
When “Timur” occupied Isfehan, he traveld to “Hejez”, “Egypt” and “Syria” and with his brothers moved to “Samarkand”(samarghand) and profited from mysticism masters(great men) and scholars. Again came to Iran and in 1405A.D(807) when heard “Timur” passed away, moved to Isfehan. For a short time, he was anchorite till in 1409A.D. (812AH.) in the time of “Alexander” got in the governmental system in “Shiraz”. With the Alexander’s murder, he again cloistered himself and because the enemies were backbiting him, he moved to “Khorasan” and he was given the position of judge by “Shahrokh”. After this appointment, he was accused of Sufism (soofigari) and leaving(quiting) the Sunnite religion and in 1427A.D.(830A.H.) he was sentenced to prison, exileand confiscation of goods or belongings. His death date was said to be in the years of 1432 or 1433(835 or 836A.H.). His masters that can be said are:”Sheikh Seraj Al-din Balghini in”Egypt”. Apparently he had profited from presence of “shams Al-din Mohammad Ibn Hamzeh Ghanari” the author of “Mesbah Al-ons”. This great philosopher was one of the influential personalities that before Molla Sadra intented to link the “Aristotelian”(mashshai), “illuminative”(eshraghi) and gonstic philosophy. So, got the most important linker ring between “Ibn Sina”, “Ghazali”, “Sohrevardi”, “Ibn Arabi” and “Khajeh Nasire Tusi” from one side, and Isfehan philosophy viewpoint and “transcendent philosophy” (hekmate mote-aliyeh) of “Molla Sadra” from the other side. Some works of him are in Arabic and others in Persian.

The structure of book:
The author, at first, presents brief discussion about preliminaries of “conceptual”(tasavori) and “prepositional”(tasdighi) mysticism, its subjects, then some popular and common words in viewpoints of “Aristotelian” (Mashshai)philosophers and Gnostics(arefan).

-The first important subject of the book is about “shared in meaning of being”(eshterake manaviye wujud) and its proofing. (The author explains why he has assigned this subject as his first subject).

-Being real of “Being”(wujud) and “principality of being” (esala’te wujud)[pantheism (Unity of being) between “principality of being” (esalate wujud) is unreasonable].

-The next subject of the book is about “ necessity of reality of being”(wujube haghighate wujud)[In this part, after relating the “Molla Sadra’s reasonings, the author of book, explain other reasons that “reality of being”(haghighat wujud) is not limited to any condition, even “absoluteness condition(ghyde etlagh).

-The subject of “absolute being”(hoviyate motlagh) of “Necessary Bing” (wujude vajeb) and the quality of emanation of “God’s most Beautiful Names” (A’sma-e hosna) from Him, the subject of “The Necessary”(vajeb) knowledge to His essence and the attributes that essential for His essence.

-Relating and criticizing the “Aristotelians”(mashshaiha) viewpoints about “The Necessary”(vajeb) knowledge to His essence. (In this part the author describing “The most holy emanation” (feyze Aghdas), “holy emanation” (feyze moghadas) and “The divine essence”(nafase rahmani).

-This part of the book, is about author’s viewpoint about humanity stage. (this stage containg all manifestation stages and the last and more complete of it).

-In continuing of the previous subject, this part is about existence necessity of “Perfect Man” and reasoning to Ibn Arabi’s word.

-Answer to the critiscism on “practical mysticism”, general axis of Practical Mysticism’s programs. In this subject, the Sa-en Aldin Isfehani make clear that more methods and actions related to “the Gnostics” (ahle erfan) are accusation, and explains that real methods of mysticism are confirmed by intellect and “religions law”(shar’).

-The last subject of the “Tamhid Al-ghava-ed” book: recommending to wayfarer(salek) to learn “real and theoretical sciences”(such as logic). [These sciences are criterion for true uncovering(discovery) form “imaginations” in “mystic perceptions”(marefe zoghi). Of course, for the wayfarer(salek), who has not any “sufi master”(morshed).

The”Tamhid Al-ghava-ed” from viewpoint of “the nobles”(great men) and philosopher:
1- This book, always has had especial importance among Gnostics and philosophers since its writing, and had been influenced on the next philosophy and Gnostic viewpoints.
2-This book has been as an educational book for many years, and masters such as the following, have instructed it:
seyyed Razi Larijani, Agha Mirza Hashem Ashkuri, Seyyed Abul Hassan Rafi-ei Ghazvini, Mohammad Hossein Fazel Tuni, Agha Mirza Mahmud Qomi, Allameh Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Tabatabai and Abodlla Javadi Amoli.
3- Seyyed Jalal Al-din Ashtiyani: This book is the the best work for proofing “the absolute being”(wujude motlagh)and some resultant subjects to it.
4-Mohsen Jahangiri: The “Tamhid Al-Ghava-ed is the valid book in theoretical Gnostic. Its author is one of the describers and protectors of Ibn Arabi’s pantheism(unity of being) mysticism.
5-Henry Corbin: The “Tamhid Al-ghava-ed” is very important for studying of shii philosophy.

Printing and publishing:
This book for the first time had been lithography printed by the effort of “Sheikh Ahamad Shirazi” in 1897A.D.(1315A.H). The reprinted of it, had been done by “Agha Mohammad Reza Ghomshei” and “Mirza Mahmud Qomi” in 1976A.D.(1355 solar year). Again in 1981A.D. (1360 solar year) printed with previous marginal notes and introduction, by “seyyed Jalal Aldin Ashtiyani”. Another printed had been done in Tehran in 2002A.D. (1381 solar year), and also in “Qom” with second edition.


Tamhid Al-ghavaed(Ashtiyani)/ The rewriting of “Tamhid Al-Ghava-ed/ Ali Ibn Mohammd Turkeh Isfehani(Äghä Bozorg Tehrani)/ Encyclopedia of Islam World- Vol 8- by using of some references/Reyhanat Al-Adab


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