Al-Mashä’er treatise

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One of the valuable writings by Sadr Al-Mote’allehin is Al-Mashä’er treatise. This book includes the beautiful and complete preface which introduces the subjects of the book with fluent style and powerful writing. It has explained the superiority of the Divine science to the other sciences and cultures. This treatise includes philosophical subjects about knowledge of “the Necessary Being” (väjeb Al-vojood), Divine Attributes, principles of faith’s realities, philosophy, “kalam” (theology), etc in Arabic. In the preface, the author mention that he has ####put the “knowledge of existence” and “ontology” as a base for his philosophy and put the basis of following on the same ontology:
-knowledge of God
-“world of images” (älame mesäl),
-union between the “intellect” (äghel) and the “intelligible”(maghol),
-comprehensiveness of “simple reality”(basit Al-haghighat),
-intensity of being and like these.
It is obvious the book is not relevant to the youth age of Molla Sadra as he says: “Already I thought the quiddity is authentic until I changed my thought and turned to the existentialism”.

The biography of Sadr Aldin shirazi(Molla Sadra):
Mohammad the son of Ibrahim Shirazi also called Sadr Aldin and famous to Molla Sadra or Sadr Almote-alehin, was born in Shiraz in 1571 or 1572A.D.(979 or 980A.H.). His father “Ibrahim the son of Yahyä Ghavämi” was one of the ministers of saffavid government. He was wealthy and influential and with great effort trained his son. Mullah Sadra’s life can be divided into three periods:
1- The periods of seminarian, studentship, discussion, studying of the old books and viewpoints of philosophers in Shiraz and Isfahan. In this period, he studied viewpoint of philosophers, kaläm, “Aristotelian” (mash-shäi) and Illuminative (eshräghi) philosophers.
2- The stage of “self-discipline” (tahzibe nafs), “asceticism” (riyazat) and “mystical disclosure” (mokashefeh) in “kahak” village (near the “Qom”) that finally led to “unveiling of Lordly truths”(kashfe haghäyegh rabäni) and “theological sciences”.
3- The stage of writing and teaching in Shiraz in the school that Allahverdy Khan, the governor of “Fars”, built it. During this period, Mullah Sadra almost wrote all his works. Mullah Sadra caused the “Divine Wisdom” (hekmate ellähi) and Islamic Philosophy enters into the new stage. He, in what is called “supreme knowledge” (elme a’lä) or universal science or “prime philosophy” or “Divine Wisdom” (hekmate elähi), [and it is the only part that really is “philosophy” and called “Real philosophy”], overshadowed the former philosopher position, changed the principles and first foundations of this science and strengthened it on a steadfast principle. Mullah Sadra, till end of his life, composed and instructed, and in this times, seven times walked to “Mecca” that in returning from the seventh journey, passed away in “Basra” in 1640A.D. (1050A.H).

Masters: Sheikh Bahä Al-din Ämoli famous to Sheikh Bahäi, Mirdamäd, Mir Abolghäsem Fenderski the Gnostic, devout and unique mathematician of that time, etc.
Students: Molla Sadrä trained many students but the most famous of them were: Molla Mohsen Feyz Kashäni and molla Abdol razägh Lähiji. Both of them, in addition of having studentship position, were his son-in-law.
Works: The Transcendent Theosophy (Four Journeys of Soul) [Alhekmate Almotealiye (asfare arba eh)]- Sharhe al-hidayat- Al-mabdawal-maad- Huduthe al-alam- Al-masha-er- Sharhe Shafa- Al-shawahid al-rububiyyah- Ajwibat al-masail- commentaries upon some Quran’s suras, etc.

The book structure:
This book including a preface about subjects of “existence” and “making” (ja’l), in 8 chapters as follows:
1- part one: about the first “made”(maj’ool), in 3 sections
1-1- existence of God and His Oneness (8 chapters),
1-2- principles and Attributes of God (4 chapters),
1-3- creation and Act of God (3 chapters and ne conclusion).
2- Part two: about the quality of “making”(ja’l)

The structure of the book in Arabic:
-preface: on researching of “concept of being”(mafhome vojood),
1- Chapter one: the “being” or “existence” is needless of description
2- Chapter two: comprehensiveness of “being” to all creatures
3- Chapter three: researching about “objective being”(vojood eyni),
4- Chapter four: dispelling the doubts about “objective being”,
5- Chapter five: the quality of “quiddity being predicated by existence”(etesäfe mähiyat to vojood).
6- Chapter six: about independent aspect of creatures
7- Chapter seven: about the relation of “essentially made”(majol belzät) to “maker”(jä’el).
8- Chapter eight: on quality of “making”(ja’l) and “manifestation”(efäze),
1- section one: on God existence (8 sections),
2- Section two: on some God’s Attributes (4 sections),
3- Section three: on creation and “innovation” [original creation], (3 sections).
- Conclusion
- List of research references
- index

This book has been printed by Rabbäni printing-house in 1961A.D.(1340S.H.), its correction and research has been done by Seyyed Jaläl Al-din Äshtiyäni. The description of the book has been done by Mollä Mohammad Jafar Lähiji, Sheikh Ahmad Ehsäi, mollä Hossein Tonekäboni, Mohammad Donboli the son of Abdol-Razägh Donboli and Seyyed Mohammd-Bagher Ibn Mohammad Jafar Tabätabäi, Sheikh Hämedäni. The description of Al-Mashä’er treatise has been done by the correction of Seyyed Jaläle Al-din Äshtiyäni and has been published by Amir Kabir publishers in Tehran in 1997A.D.(1376S.H.). The French translation, introduction and footnotes was done by Henry Corbin (in Tehran/1963A.D./1342S.H.) and its Persian translation was done by Badi’ Al-Molk Mirzä Emäd Al-Doleh.


1- Al-Mashä’er treatise by Sadr Al-din Shirazi

2- Molla Sadra comprehensive bibliography by Nahid Bagheri Khoram Dashti


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