Objective and Intellectual monotheism in philosophical and mystical schools

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(It is ) the exchanged philosophical and mystical 14 letters and correspondences collection, about monotheism and the degrees of God’s Essence Names and Attributes, between two distinguished scholars “Haj Seyyed Ahamad Tehrani famous to “Karbaläi” and Haj Sheikh Mohammad Hossein Isfahani famous to “Kumpäni”, concerning one couplet of Attär Nishäburi’s poems in “Manteq Al-Tayr” (the conference of the Birds). This collection that itself is as a scientific great treasury, in epistemic different issues from two viewpoints of philosophy and mystical, is ####an answer by the “Late Kumpäny” with philosophical insight, the viewpoint of philosophers and scholars,( means “rational and demonstrative evidences”), and an answer by the Late Seyyed Ahmad Karbalai with mystical insight, on the basis of Gnostics viewpoint (means “Argument, Intuition and Objective conscience”).

The author of this collection is the Late Allame Haj Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Hesseini Tehrani, one of the distinguished and contemporary scholars and Gnostics of 15centurayA.H. Since the very exact and profound discourses of monotheistic-mystical & philosophical of both sides’ letters, including the scientific (high) subjects from two views of philosophy and “mysticism”( Gnosticism), were very important, required the analyzing and studying, the Late Allame Tabatabi (the author of valuable commentary of Al-Mizän), in addition to teachings in Qom’s theological school, instructed the first 3 letters of the Late Seyyed, and the first 3 letters of the Late Shiekh, on Thursday and Friday, and each one of the letters, were named “Marginal notes and Mohäkemät" [Mohäkemät means the third person who present his view after studying the views of others]. After his death, Allame Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Hosseini Tehrani (the author of the book) added his viewpoint, on 8 rest letters of two great-men. He explained and wrote marginal notes for them. Thus, this valuable book that had studied the viewpoint of monotheistic and epistemic of philosopher Gnostic, and made clear the truth, was compiled and edited on the base of his nonstop efforts.

Allame Ayatllah Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Hsseini Tehrani, the great scholar, Gnostic, contemporary (15centuryA.H.) philosopher and “jurisconsult” (faghih), the son of Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Sädegh who was born in Tehran in 1926/oct/4(1345/1/24A.H.). In childhood he was under his father’s training. He finished the elementary education then the secondary education in the field of mechanics and machine-tool manufacture. After wearing the clergymen dress, at the age of nineteen went to the Qom. In the same early years, he got one of the special students of the Late Alläme Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Tabätabäi (the owner of Almizän commentary) and made use of his philosophy, commentary and practical Gnostic lessons. About 7 years, at the different levels of scientific, he had profited from great masters, then for completing his education, at the age of 26, he went to Iraq and dwelled in Najaf. He studied “jurisprudence” (figh), the principles of jurisprudence, “methodology”(osool), “tradition” (hadith) in presence of Najaf’s great scholars. According to the Alläme Tabätabäi’s view and recommendation and socializing with Ayatollah Haj Seyyed Jamäl Al-din Golpayegäni passed the Gnostic and “mystic jurney”(solooki) stages, then got acquainted with the Late Seyyed Hashem Hadäd, one of the recent great Gnostics and fascinated by him. Allame Tehrani at the age f 33, after finishing higher education and reaching to the moral and inner virtues, for the sake of performance of duty, propagation and development of religion science and by the order of his mystic journey’s master returned to Tehran. [Mystic journey= ostäde solooki]. During living years in Tehran, guiding and directing people, after Ayatollah Burujerdy’s death and royalist incitements of Pahlavi government, he spared no effort in helping the revolution Late leader (Ayatollah Khomeni). This great man, after 23 years effort and dwelling in Tehran in the year of 1910A.D. (1400A.H.) went to Mashhad and lived there in the last 15 years of his life. He died in Mashhad in 1995.7.8(1416/2/9A.H.). His tomb is in part of south-east of Engheläb courtyard, in threshold of shoe keeper.

Short history of correspondences
In the time of Akhund Molla Mohammad Käzem Khoräsäni, one of the talented students of Najaf by the name of Sheikh Ismäil Tabrizi, pen name to “Tä’eb” in a letter to Akhund Khoräsäni, quoted the Attär Nishäpuri’s poem and ask him the meaning of second couplet as follows:
- constantly he is Absolute King *** He is absorbed in His lofty perfection
-He never come down from His position *** the intellect (as a creature of God) cannot understand the power of God
The Late Äkhund gives a short answer. Sheikh Ismäil also asks the same question, in writing, from the Late Ayatollah Sheikh Mohammad Hossein Isfahani (Kumpäni) and the Late Ayatollah Haj Seyyed Ahmad Tehräni (Karbaläi) and they wrote answers for him. Since the Sheikh answers according to the philosopher and scholars viewpoint and the Seyyed (answers) according to the Gnostics viewpoint, these two answers had differed together. Therefore Shikh Ismäil, at first took the Shiekh’s answer to the Seyyed Ahamd and he write a detailed and reasoned answer in rejecting that subject, then up to 7 times the Sheikh Ismail Tä’eb, took the letter’s of each one of the both great men to the other. Thus totally 14 letters are exchanged between them that whichever has stated their special cases in illustration the subjects and explaining satisfactorily. Also in them, on the basis of subjects, is cleared many cases of philosophers and Gnostics disagreements.

The book’s structure and division:
1- The comprehensive preface by Allame Tahräni including: (history and identity of original correspondence, the biography of personages and distinguished Gnostics that has been talked about them in this (book) such as: the Late Karbaläi, the Late Kumpäni, Attär Nishäpuri, etc).
2- The question of Sheikh Ismäil Nä’eb from the Late Äkhund Khoräsäni about the meaning of Attär’s poem.
3- Seven letters of the Late “Kumpäni” in explaining the Attär’s couplet and answering to the Seyyed Ahamd’s criticisms
4-Seven letters of the Late Seyyed Ahmad in explaining the Attär’s couplet and criticizing the Kumpäni
5- Six marginal notes by Allame Tabätabäi which including: three marginal notes on the first three-letters of Kumpäni and three marginal notes on the first three-letters of Seyyed Ahamd
6- Eight marginal notes by Allame Mohammad Hossein Tehräni which including: 4 marginal notes on other four letters by Seyyed Ahamd and four marginal notes on four letters by the Late Kumpany.
Generally, all the text’s subjects and marginal notes are relevant to the monotheistic subjects, the degrees of God’s Essence, Names and the Attributes, “pantheism”, pure existences, etc, finally the perfect Man’s status in epistemic system or order, in universe, which accompany with mystical exact subjects and rational proofs or arguments. (We refer the interested ones to the original book).

Printing and publishing:
This book for the first time printed in Tehran in 1990 A.D.(1410A.H.).
The publisher of the book: Hekmat publishers in Tehran.

Sources

Objective and Intellectual monotheism

Keywords


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