The virtues of Shi’a

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It is a thin and small-volume book by the head of traditionists “Sheikh Saduq” which including 45 traditions about the shia’s virtues. The time of Sheikh Saduq coincided with the weakness of Islamic central government and Abbasside caliph. The Shi’a governments such as Tahirid Dynasty, Saffarid Dynasty, Fatimid, Alavid especially Deyalama” (Deylamite) were appearing and developing. Most of those governments’ skeleton was built on shi’a sciences and their doctrines. Naturally have expanded and developed it and willy-nilly was reduced the majority of#### Sunnites’ pressure on minority of Shi’as. His distinguished personality becomes known by the many religious questions which the people (from different Islamic countries) have asked him and the greatness and powerfulness of shi’a and shiism in his time. His activity and its kinds for strengthening the shi’a governments’ situation, the power of shia government for his protection and its kinds and both of them for progressing the Jafari (school), were the important elements. In such a time Sheikh Saduq could fulfill (with lack of worry) his plan and with his journeys, pen and word spread (develop) the Jafari doctrines.

The author’s brief biography:
Abu Jafar Mohammad Ibn Ali famous to “Sheikh Saduq”, one of the shi’a jurisprudence founders, great scholar and traditionist, was born in fourth century A.H. in Qom. His great father “Ali Ibn Hossein Ibn Mosa Ibn Babawaih Qomi was one of the outstanding scholars and jurists of that time. Sheikh Saduq spent his childhood, adolescence and youth in the lap of his father’s science, virtue, asceticism and piety and learned the science in presence of his father. Due to the great intelligence and talent he could memorized thousands traditions and Hadiths with their documents series before the age of 20 and fulfilled their contents. Sheikh Saduq up to age of 23 lived in the time of Imam of the Time (Imam Mahdi)’s minor occultation and comprehended (communicated) the periods of 3 persons of Four representatives (of the twelfth Imam). On the other hand his life (periods) accompanied with some government of Abbasside caliphs means the time of Moghtader Abbaside. He went to Baqdad in 966A.D. (355A.H.). Great men and scholars listened to his tradition. According to the Sheikh Hurr Ameili and other experts’ word, like him has not been seen in the field of multitude of science, memorizing and recording the Islamic works and news. His writings about 300 books, the source of understanding the injunctions, honorable jurists’ usage and his outstanding religious services in reviving the Innocent Imams’ works are no room for doubt. Among the scholars, Sheikh Saduq was rare from the viewpoint of breadth of knowledge, multitude of books and personal writings. According to the historical evidences most of Sheikh Saduq’s books have been existed up to fifth and sixth centuries and has been available for scholars, but in our periods, have not been left a book of these books, except a few numbers. Another subject in Sheikh Saduq’s works is his interesting innovation in parting the traditions and their subjects. So that except a few of his books which have been compiled in the form of Hadith’s comprehensive book (such as Man Läyahduruh Al-Faqih), other his book have been usually embellished by thematic name and indicating the traditions which have been existed in that field, such as: M’äni Al-Akhbär, Elal Al-Sharaye, Khesäl, Monotheism, etc.

The features of Sheikh Saduq’s writings:
One of the sheikh Saduq’s writings features is their Arabic aspect. One of its reasons has been the language weakness of that time that did not have so power and eloquence till to answer the scientific changes. So that after hundred year still cannot transfer (translate) some juridical and philosophical terms into Persian and there is no choice but explain in Arabic world. Especially the Saduq’s books which have been more the traditions text and has less personal point of view. For safekeeping, it has been better to be written in Arabic, but simple and eloquent Arabic which everybody uses it and has been avoided from rhyme.

Another feature of Saduq’s writing is about: in the principle of faith and sciences did not look for mystical, philosophical, theological and logical reasoning terms. He used the simple and unadorned method of (religious) law, Exalted prophet (p.b.u.h.) and his successor (p.b.u.th.) which had been in a simple language, public understanding proofs, rational argumentations of outer world (äf äq) and “internal or spiritual” (anfosi). As the religious leaders could explain their subjects in the form of these reasoning and terms and did not do it, Sheikh Saduq also did not do so. He knowingly and purposely deemed the Quran reasons and Innocent Imams’ news sufficient and used them, because for mentioning these interpretations for everybody cannot find a language and a written better than it. This great scholar lived in “Rey,Iran” (shahr- e Rey or city of Rey) in the latter part of his life and died in Rey city about the age of 70 in 991A.D. (381A.H.). His tomb is in Ibn Babawaih near the Shah Abdol Azim’s Shrine.

The book structure:
This book includes 45traditions which one of the book’s traditions is as follows:
From Ibn Abbäs: “The holy prophet (p.b.u.h.) said: Love of Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.) eat sins, as the fire eat up (and burns) the wood”.

Sources

The virtues of Shi’a by Abu-Jafar Mohammad Ibn Bäbevey Qomi famous to Saduq

Keywords


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