The Lights about branches of legal rules or Comprehensive Generalities of branches of legal rules (Masäbih Al-Foroo’)

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The noble book of “The Lights about branches of legal rules” (Masäbih Al-foroo’) is one of the Ayatollah Haj Äqä Hussein Tabatabäi Broujerdi’s works. Considering to the book’s text and its contents, it is a treatise like other his treatises and books such as “Jame’ Al-Foroo’ “ (comprehensive branches of legal rules) and “Montakhab Al-Rasä’el” (Selected Treatises). The subjects of this book are close to the subject of aforementioned books but including more comprehensive and more complete subjects and injunctions. As its name shows some its subjects have ####been related very concisely in the book of “comprehensive branches of legal rules “(Jame’ Al-Foroo’).The book of “The Lights about branches of legal rules “(Masäbih Al-Foroo’) is the juridical and practical treatise which explains the religion’s injunctions. In this book has been tried to clarify the readers and imitators on the juridical and religious issues. For more confirmation of the contents and injunctions for readers, in the marginal part of the beginning of the book has been written by the Ayatollah Tabatabai’s handwriting and seal: Doing (to the injunctions of) this treatise is permissible”. As the book’s text and preface shows this book has been complied and printed by the Mohammad Ibn Abdullah famous to Movahedi Qomi.

The author’s biography:
Ayatollah Haj Agha Hussein Tabatabai (Borujerdi), the shia “authority” (marja’) and famous scholar of 14 century was born in Borujerd in 1875A.D. (1292A.H.). His father “Haj Seyyed Ali was one of the Borujerd scholar and most of his ancestors and family were one of their times famous scientists and scholars. Haj Aghä Hussein went to school from the age of 7. He learned Quran, literature and logic very soon. At the age of 18 he went to Isfahan which that time was one of the important scientific centers. During 10 years, he studied in the presence of great scholars and reached to the high scientific levels which 3 person of his masters permitted him of Ejtehad. Synchronous with education, he started the teaching of “jurisprudence” (feqh) and “methodology” (osul) which many scholars participated in his classes. He went to the Holy Najaf about 1902A.D. (1320A.H.) and attended at the classes of Seyyed Mohammad Kazem Khuräsäni (Äkhund) and Seyyed Mohammad Käzem Yazdi Tabatabai. After many years dwelling in Najaf he returned to the Borujered in 1910A.D. (1328A.H.), which this returning and dwelling in Borujerd lasted 36 years. During this period, he had many scientific and social activities. From the early years, he had logical and serious fight against the stray sect of Baha’ism and eradicating them from that territory. With forming the classroom and gathering the scholar seminarians, he put the cornerstone of seminary which during many years had extremely valuable results.
Mr. Boroujerdi in addition of scientific and researching tasks, had the broad programs in Islam world and Muslims’ social positions. This great Divine man left behind himself many mementos and the virtuous deeds. We briefly mention some of them:
1- “Azam” (great) mosque in Qom next to Fatima Al-Masumeh shrine (p.b.u.h.),
2- the library of Azam mosque
3- theological school in Najaf next to the Imam Ali’s shrine
4- “Hussainia” (a place in which Muslims mourn the martyrdom of Imam Hussein) and bathroom in Samarra
5- Hamburg Mosque in Germany, reconstruction and repair of some schools, library, mosque in different cities and countries such as Feyzye and Khan school in Qom, Bogh’e school in Karbala, theological school in Kermanshah and Nekui hospital in Qom.
Finally this divine scholar died at the age of 88 in the Thursday morning of 4.30.1961A.D. (1360/1/4S.H., 1380/10/12A.H.).

The book structure:
The book of “The Lights about branches of legal rules“(Masäbih Al-Foroo’) including 37 “light” (Mesbäh) which each one of them including different chapters that more explains these lights:
1- The first “light” (Mesbäh): on “Purity” (Tahärat): (including 10 chapters),
2- The second light: on “Prayer” (namäz) and its kinds. (Including 9 chapters),
3- The third light: on fasting: (including 10 chapters) and in the end of this part has been related the “zakät Fitr” (it is an alms as prescribed by Islam which given to the poor at the end of the fasting in the Islamic holy month of Ramadan) which itself including four chapters
4- The fourth light :on “zakät” (alms):( including 9 chapters),
5- The fifth light: on “One Fifth” (khums): (including 4 chapters),
6- The sixth light: on marriage:( including one preface and some issues),
7- The seventh light: on “wet nurse” (rezä),
8- The eighth light: on divorce, “khule’ ” (type f divorce), “mobärät” (type of divorce) and “zahär” (kind of divorce): This part including 4 subjects which each one of them including several chapters
9- The ninth light: on Hajj
10- The tenth light: “taking an oath” (nazr), “covenant” (ahd) and “oath” (yamin): (including 3 chapters),
11- The eleventh light: on “endowment” (waqf), “seize” (habs is kind of endowment) /, “soknä” (kind of endowment), “omrä”(kind of endowment), “roqbä” (kind of endowment): (including 3 chapters),
12- The twelfth light: on trading or business:( including 10 chapters),
13- The thirteenth light: on “misappropriation” (qasb),
14- The fourteenth light: on “founding thing” or ownerless property” (laqte),
15- The fifteenth light: on hunting and slaughtering
16- The sixteenth light: on eating and drinking
17- The seventeenth light: on peace” (sulh),
18- The eighteenth light: on “shofa’e” (the right of precedence of one partner to buy the share of the other),
19- The nineteenth light: on “hire” (ejare),
20- The twenty light: on “reward” (ja’äleh),
21- The twenty-first light: on “lending” (wadiyah),
22- The twenty-second light: on “trust” (wadiyah),
23- The twenty-third light: on sexual intercourse
24- The twenty-fourth light: on “partnership” (sherkat),
25- The twenty-fifth light: on “representative” (wakalah),
26- The twenty-sixth light: on debt
27- The twenty-seventh light: on mortgage
28- The twenty-eighth light: on surety” (zemän),
29- The twenty-ninth light: on bail” (kafälah),
30- The thirty light: on “hawäle” (kind of liability),
31- The thirty- first light: on “muzäre’e” (agricultural partnership on farming),
32- The thirty-second light: on “musäqät” (agricultural partnership on orchard),
33- The thirty-third light: on “prohibition” (hajr),
34- The thirty-fourth light: on will (wasiyat),
35- The thirty-fifth light: on inheritance
36- The thirty-sixth light: on fixed punishment (hudud),
37- The thirty-seventh light: on “blood monies or financial compensation),
-conclusion: on miscellaneous which the people of different cities asked for “ftwä” (religious decree) from Ayatollah and he answered them.

Sources

The Lights about branches of legal rules or Comprehensive Generalities of branches of legal rules (Masäbih Al-Foroo’) by Ayatollah Tabatabai Broujerdi

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