Ash’ari Theologians’ View on Miracle and Natural Rules

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In the view of Ash’ari theologians, miracle should not be discussed, talking about the secret of miracles is not right; basically there is no secret in miracles, they are God’s will.

There are differences between the natural rules and intellectual rules which are applied in mathematics and philosophy.
Mathematical rules referred to the rules which their necessity discovered by the intellect and the contrary is impossible.
For example, if two things which are equal to another thing, they are equal to each other as well. This rule and its necessity is accepted and comprehend by the intellect, it means that according to the intellect, the opposite never happens.
If there is a miracle in which there are two equal things which are also equal to another thing, but the things are not equal to each other; in this case it will not be accepted by the intellect, because it is against the intellect’s necessities.

Therefore if a prophet claims something which is against the mathematical rules or philosophical and intellectual necessities, the intellect will not accept it.

According to Ashairites, natural rules have no necessity
Natural rules are referred to the rules which miracle is against them. The intellect never discovers the Necessity of natural rules, it only discovers the Existence of these rules, but it does not know whether it is necessary to exist tin this way or not. Like a society which is built by people and they themselves create the rules.
Therefore natural sciences only discovers the Existence NOT the Necessity. Natural sciences based on sense, and sense only discovers the Existence, whereas Necessity is an intellectual conception, therefore many philosophers believe that Necessity is made by the intellect.

Considering the intellectual necessities and mathematical rules in Descartes’ view
Descartes and some other philosophers believe that natural rule means God’s will, the nature is formed by His will; therefore miracle is done by God.
They consider intellectual necessities as the same as natural rules. According to theses philosophers, there is no secret in miracles; the secret is God’s will.

Sources

Prophecy (by. Motahhari)

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