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Monotheism is one of the most important Islamic beliefs; believing in monotheism is accepted by all the Islamic religions. Asking people to accept monotheism and confronting polytheism were the most essential prophets' tasks:
We have despatched a messenger to every nation: serve God alone and turn aside from the arrogant ones. (16/36)
My folk serve God alone; you have no other deity than Him. (7/59)
To Aad [there was sent] their brother Hud: "O my people serve God, alone. You have no other deity than Him. Will you not do your duty? (7/65)
To Thamud [there was sent] their brother Saleh. He said: "my folk worship God. You have no other deity than Him. A proof no other deity than Him. A proof has come to you from your Lord: this camel belonging to God is a sign for you, so leave her grazing on God's earth and do not let any harm touch her lest some painful torment should overtake you. (7/73)
To Midian we sent their brother Shuayb. He said: "my people worship God, alone. You have no other deity besides Him. A token has come to you from your Lord, so offer full measure and weight and do not undersell people in their dealings nor spoil things on earth once it has been set right; that will be best for you if you are believers. (7/85)
According to the Holy Prophet, monotheism is the head of all knowledge.
There are different sorts of monotheism. The following are the most famous:
1- Inherent monotheism
2- Attributive monotheism
3- Monotheism in acts
4- Monotheism in worship
It means God is Unique, no one is like Him. He does not need anything in His Essence and all creatures inherently need Him.
It refers to the inherent attributes of God, such as: knowledge, power, and life. Although they do not have the same sense, they all refer to God's Extensive Inherent. Inherent monotheism requires attributive monotheism.
Monotheism in creation and divinity
It refers to the belief that the Creator is only God and there is no partner for him in the world, although the Creation is based on causes (reasons) and means (including the natural and supernatural cause and means) have no independence and they act by God's Power.
There are two kinds of Koranic verses:
1- The verses in which creation of the world is attributed to God
2- The verses in which special acts in the nature are attributed to human, natural and supernatural creatures
There are also some other verses which attribute an act (make creatures die) both to God and the creatures:
God recalls souls at the time of their death. (39/42)
Say: "the Angel of Death who has been given charge of you will gather you in. (32/11)
Our messengers will gather him in. (6/61)
Monotheism in worship
No one deserves to be worshipped but God. Worship means respecting the one who is divine, the one who has existential independence in his essence. God is Divine, therefore He is the one who should be served. Worshipping any other creatures other than God will be polytheism.
It is obvious that having a high great respect for someone without considering their divinity will not be polytheism.
So We told the angels: "bow down on your knees before Adam. They all knelt down except for Diabolis. (1/34)
Therefore Wahabism' belief which reject seeking to prophets and the Imams and visiting the Holy Shrines, is totally wrong. Because Muslims do not have the intention of worshipping the prophets and Imams and do not consider divinity for them. But they just have a great respect for them.
The Koran and the reasons for monotheism
The Koranic verses which set out reasons for oneness of God:
There is nothing like Him (42/11)
God is only One God (4/171)
If there were other gods in either Heaven or Earth besides God Alone, they would both dissolve in chaos. (21/22)
Say: "God is Unique. God is Source for everything. He has not fathered anyone nor was fathered. And there is nothing comparable to Him. (112)
Related topics: A brief of theism in Islam (1)
References: almizan exegesis
The living religions in the world
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